What are the differences between term life and cash value policies?
Term life insurance is just that -- life insurance, and nothing more. Your premium payments are applied 100% to the cost of the insurance. As retirement approaches, your need for life insurance is likely to decline, as children become able to support themselves (even if your own little "rebel without a clue" may not yet be willing) and retirement savings begin to approximate a lump-sum life insurance payment. At this point, term insurance is easily dropped, without penalty.
The second class of life insurance encompasses a wide variety of financial products that are often lumped together under the label "cash value insurance." Examples are whole life, universal life, and variable life. These products combine term life insurance with a long-term, tax-sheltered savings plan.
The most important thing to understand about cash value policies is that they are designed to be held for life. That is why we put that sentence in bold type. There are usually significant up-front charges associated with setting up the savings plan, investing the money, and paying the agent's commission. Even with these charges, tax-sheltered savings can still catch up to taxed investments and begin delivering a real advantage. But, it can take 10 to 20 years for the needle to begin moving your way. For this reason, please do not enter into a cash value insurance plan without doing a lot of homework.
In a nutshell, here's how cash value works. A portion of your regular premium payment -- roughly the amount of an equivalent term life premium -- pays for your life insurance. The balance, minus management charges, is applied to your cash value savings account. To build savings, premiums are higher than term life premiums, by roughly the amount of your savings contribution.
The cash value savings goal -- at least as these policies were originally conceived -- is to provide income to cover life insurance payments in your golden years, when premiums become prohibitively expensive. When you buy the farm (not literally, of course), any savings balance remaining is passed on to your beneficiary either as a portion of the insurance death benefit or in addition to it, depending on the policy type.
Be aware, though, that it can be tough to spend your cash value savings if you want to use them for something other than insurance payments. Pulling money out of the plan will likely result in income taxes that negate the fundamental tax-shelter benefit. Many policies allow you to borrow against your savings at low interest rates, but you are still paying for the use of your own money and the rules can be complicated, especially if you have no interest in paying back the loans (returning money to the plan).
Insurance companies profit handsomely from folks who unwittingly buy into cash value plans and then drop them early. Agents make more in commissions when they sell these plans than they do from term life sales. These are not necessarily indictments of the industry, as cash value plans provide a valuable consumer service under certain scenarios. But they are reasons to be a very careful shopper when it comes to cash value insurance.
One common sales tactic is to stress that cash value policies are "permanent" and that a payoff is "guaranteed," as opposed to those "temporary" policies in which your money simply "disappears." Term life can be as "permanent" as you choose to make it, via guaranteed renewable policies. And equivalent amounts of money "disappear," to pay for insurance, whether the policy is term or cash value. There can be benefits to a cash value plan, but these are not among them.
A final note: Less scrupulous agents may push cash value insurance with confusing presentations and emotional arguments that don't hold up to careful examination. Getting these folks to separate the two basic pieces -- insurance payments versus savings plan -- can be like getting a politician to talk about the real issues. Insist that agents explain these policies on your terms, with the benefits broken down into these two pieces.