Numbers can lie -- but they're the best first step in determining whether a stock is a buy. In this series, we use some carefully chosen metrics to size up a stock's true value based on the following clues:

  • The current price multiples
  • The consistency of past earnings and cash flow
  • How much growth we can expect

Let's see what those numbers can tell us about how expensive or cheap Walgreen (NYSE: WAG) might be.

The current price multiples
First, we'll look at most investors' favorite metric: the P/E ratio. It divides the company's share price by its earnings per share (EPS) -- the lower, the better.

Then, we'll take things up a notch with a more advanced metric: enterprise value to unlevered free cash flow. This divides the company's enterprise value (basically, its market cap plus its debt, minus its cash) by its unlevered free cash flow (its free cash flow, adding back the interest payments on its debt). Like the P/E, the lower this number is, the better.

Analysts argue about which is more important -- earnings or cash flow. Who cares? A good buy ideally has low multiples on both.

Walgreen has a P/E ratio of 14.9 and an EV/FCF ratio of 11.4 over the trailing 12 months. If we stretch and compare current valuations to the five-year averages for earnings and free cash flow, Walgreen has a P/E ratio of 15.5 and a five-year EV/FCF ratio of 21.1.

A one-year ratio under 10 for both metrics is ideal. For a five-year metric, under 20 is ideal.

Walgreen has a mixed performance in hitting the ideal targets, but let's see how it compares against some competitors and industry mates. 

Company

1-Year P/E

1-Year EV/FCF

5-Year P/E

5-Year EV/FCF

Walgreen

14.9

11.4

15.5

21.1

CVS Caremark (NYSE: CVS)

12.3

17.7

15.4

32.6

Rite Aid (NYSE: RAD)

NM

46.4

NM

79.5

Kroger (NYSE: KR)

919.5

16.3

15.6

20.9

Source: Capital IQ, a division of Standard & Poor's; NM = not meaningful.

Numerically, we've seen how Walgreen's valuation rates on both an absolute and relative basis. Next, let's examine...

The consistency of past earnings and cash flow
An ideal company will be consistently strong in its earnings and cash flow generation.

In the past five years, Walgreen's net income margin has ranged from 3.1% to 3.8%. In that same time frame, unlevered free cash flow margin has ranged from 1.1% to 4.1%.

How do those figures compare with those of the company's peers? See for yourself:

Wagmarginranges
 

Source: Capital IQ, a division of Standard & Poor's; margin ranges are combined.

Additionally, over the last five years, Walgreen has tallied up five years of positive earnings and five years of positive free cash flow.

Next, let's figure out...

How much growth we can expect
Analysts tend to comically overstate their five-year growth estimates. If you accept them at face value, you will overpay for stocks. But while you should definitely take the analysts' prognostications with a grain of salt, they can still provide a useful starting point when compared to similar numbers from a company's closest rivals.

Let's start by seeing what this company's done over the past five years. In that time period, Walgreen has put up past EPS growth rates of 6.9%. Meanwhile, Wall Street's analysts expect future growth rates of 14%.

Here's how Walgreen compares to its peers for trailing five-year growth (due to some losses, the trailing growth rates for Rite Aid and Kroger are not meaningful):

Wagtrailing
 

Source: Capital IQ, a division of Standard & Poor's; EPS growth shown.

And here's how it measures up with regard to the growth analysts expect over the next five years:

Wag
 

Source: Capital IQ, a division of Standard & Poor's; estimates for EPS growth.

The bottom line
The pile of numbers we've plowed through has shown us how cheap shares of Walgreen are trading, how consistent its performance has been, and what kind of growth profile it has -- both on an absolute and a relative basis.

The more consistent a company's performance has been and the more growth we can expect, the more we should be willing to pay. We've gone well beyond looking at a 14.9 P/E ratio.

Walgreen and its archnemesis CVS both look solid by the numbers. If you find Walgreen's numbers (or any of the companies' numbers) compelling, don't stop. Continue your due diligence process until you're confident that the initial numbers aren't lying to you.