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To Build or Not to Build Keystone XL Pipeline

Perhaps no other proposed pipeline in the history of North America has attracted the kind of opposition that the northern portion of Keystone XL has.

Environmentalists and climate change campaigners are staunchly opposed to its construction, arguing that it would lead to increased activity in Canada's oil sands and, therefore, dangerously high levels of greenhouse gas emissions.

On the other hand, a recent study by the U.S. State Department highlighted Keystone's potential benefits to the U.S. economy and concluded that its impact on the environment probably wouldn't be as bad as these groups claim, though it did acknowledge that oil sands production is more harmful for the environment than conventional methods.

Which side's got it right? Would Keystone's economic benefits outweigh its potential effects on the environment? And would rejecting the pipeline really do anything to slow down development in Canada's oil sands?

Keystone's economic impact
According to the State Department report, the economic impact of TransCanada's (NYSE: TRP  ) Keystone XL pipeline would be most significant during its two-year construction phase, when it is expected to create tens of thousands of jobs. But there's a catch. Once the pipeline is constructed, the vast majority of those jobs would evaporate, leaving behind just a minuscule number of permanent staff.

The study says that Keystone "would potentially support approximately 42,100 average annual jobs across the United States over a 1- to 2-year construction period (of which, approximately 3,900 would be directly employed in construction activities)."

But once completed, Keystone's operation "would generate 35 permanent and 15 temporary jobs, primarily for routine inspections, maintenance, and repairs." Hence, the pipeline would have "negligible socioeconomic impacts" after it gets built.

Keystone's environmental impact
As for its environmental impact, the report reckons that Keystone will spew about 3.2 million metric tons of carbon dioxide annually into the atmosphere. To offset this projected increase in annual carbon emissions, 626,000 cars would have to be taken off U.S. roads, according to the study.

In addition, the report finds that producing one barrel of crude oil from Canada's oil sands would lead to 17% greater greenhouse gas emissions as compared to producing a typical barrel of crude oil. In subsequent years, that percentage could increase further as oil sands production scales up, the study added.

This is indeed worrisome. Global greenhouse gas concentrations are already at their highest level in nearly a million years. And they're quickly approaching a dangerous 400 parts per million, up more than 40% from the 280 parts per million concentrations seen before the Industrial Revolution. Environmentalists and climate change campaigners argue that further development in Canada's oil sands could be just the catalyst to push these concentrations to more dangerous and potentially irreversible levels.

Would rejecting Keystone really prevent further oil sands development?
While I do think its quite clear that oil sands production is worse for the environment than conventional oil production, it's less clear what impact rejecting Keystone would have on the level of greenhouse gas emissions from Canada's oil sands.

As the State Department study suggested, rejecting the pipeline probably wouldn't lead to a meaningful reduction in the pace of oil sands development and it certainly wouldn't reduce the demand for heavy crude oil at U.S. refineries. Refiners have already found ways to bypass infrastructure constraints by turning to alternative shipment methods like rail and barge.

For instance, Tesoro (NYSE: TSO  ) is looking into shipping oil sands crude via barge to the U.S. Pacific Northwest, from where it would then use rail to transport the oil to its refineries in California. Similarly, Valero (NYSE: VLO  ) recently announced its plans to use barge to deliver oil sands crude to its St. Charles refinery in Louisiana. And Phillips 66 (NYSE: PSX  ) recently said that its refineries in California are now accepting Canadian crude delivered via rail.

While these methods probably can't be sustained for too long if Canadian oil sands production ramps up further, they illustrate U.S. refiners' thirst for heavy crude oil and their resilience in finding new ways to secure it.

To build or not to build
While the State Department report's conclusions raise the probability that the Obama administration will authorize the controversial pipeline, environmentalist opposition remains a major and growing challenge. Groups like Bill McKibben's continue to gain momentum in rallying support against Keystone, whose construction, they suggest, would contribute to a higher global temperature.

But if the State Department study is correct in its assertion that rejecting Keystone would not have a meaningful impact on drilling activity in Alberta's oil sands and, hence, on the level of greenhouse gas emissions, then does it really make sense to deny a pipeline that would bring hundreds of thousands of barrels of oil per day to our refiners and help us reduce our dependence on foreign imports of heavy crude oil?

Look, I'm not denying that climate change is real; the freak weather events of the past few years have been enough to convince me. I also agree with climate change campaigners that raising the Earth's temperature by more than two degrees Celsius would likely have disastrous consequences.

But the bottom line is that the world needs oil and Canada has tons of it. If Keystone gets rejected, oil sands operators would probably just expand their use of rail and barge to ship oil to the U.S. and/or find entirely new markets for their product.

So is it really in the United States' best interest to forgo the economic benefits (admittedly temporary) and greater energy security (also admittedly short-term) that Keystone XL would provide? What do you think?

Whether or not Keystone XL is approved by the U.S. State Department, improvements in pipeline infrastructure will be a defining trend in North America's energy landscape over the next several years -- one that astute investors would be wise to follow. Enterprise Products Partners, the nation's largest publicly traded energy partnership, is at the forefront of this trend and is investing heavily in pipeline infrastructure that will serve the nation's energy companies for decades into the future. To help investors decide whether Enterprise Products Partners is a buy or a sell today, click here now to check out The Motley Fool's brand-new premium research report on the company.

Read/Post Comments (4) | Recommend This Article (12)

Comments from our Foolish Readers

Help us keep this a respectfully Foolish area! This is a place for our readers to discuss, debate, and learn more about the Foolish investing topic you read about above. Help us keep it clean and safe. If you believe a comment is abusive or otherwise violates our Fool's Rules, please report it via the Report this Comment Report this Comment icon found on every comment.

  • Report this Comment On March 18, 2013, at 4:26 PM, mdk0611 wrote:

    If the crude isn't carried by Keystone it will be carried by a Canadian pipeline to the Canadian pacific coast

    As opposed to how many cars would have to be taken off the road, how about comparing the annual cabon emissions to the emissions that would be created by Warren Buffett's trains shipping it to one coast or another. That would be apples to apples.

  • Report this Comment On March 18, 2013, at 9:27 PM, DRZYDave wrote:

    The pipeline *could* goto the Canadian pacific coast but the Canadian people have spoken and voted against destroying their beautiful wilderness and causing further damage to our planet. That is the only reason that the idea of running through the bread basket of America came about. What I don't understand is why we as Americans would allow this pipeline to exist for the purpose of transporting Canadian oil through America out the gulf of Mexico and away to the rest of the world. What's in it for us

  • Report this Comment On March 19, 2013, at 7:01 AM, StopPrintinMoney wrote:

    That is why Buffett turned into a political prostitute - he supports Obama in part because his trains carry the oil, and if the pipeline is built, he's losing money big time.

  • Report this Comment On March 20, 2013, at 2:36 AM, BariSaxon wrote:

    I'd be interested to see how much more it costs to ship oil by boat or train vs. pipeline. Hopefully it *would* be more so as to dissuade this form of extraction should the pipeline be denied.

    For more information on exactly why tar sands oil is so much worse than other methods of extraction, go here:

    And what our economy really *doesn't* need is another Hurricane Katrina-style storm surge...every two years.

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