A Year-End Look At HIV Treatments in 2013

2013 was a year of encouraging developments in treatments for HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.

Although we still haven't found a cure for HIV, which affects approximately 34 million people worldwide and 1.1 million people in the United States, better drugs were approved in 2013, and a new generation of HIV vaccines is making its way through clinical trials.

Let's take a closer look at these major developments, and how companies like Gilead Sciences (NASDAQ: GILD  ) , GlaxoSmithKline (NYSE: GSK  ) , Pfizer (NYSE: PFE  ) , and Inovio Pharmaceuticals (NASDAQ: INO  ) could get closer to their goals of effectively treating HIV in 2014.

Gilead continues dominating the market

HIV treatments have come a long way since the days of AZT, the first FDA approved treatment for the disease, which caused a wide array of blood, liver, and heart problems.

Over the past 12 years, Gilead Sciences' Viread has been the most important HIV drug in the market. Viread blocks reverse transcriptase, a virus enzyme which plays a crucial role in HIV and hepatitis B infections.

Over time, Gilead has improved Viread by combining it with other drugs, such as Truvada (Viread and Emtriva), Atripla (Viread, Emtriva, Merck's Sustiva), Complera (Viread, Emtriva, Tibotec's Edurant) and Stribild (Viread, Emtriva, EVG, and cobicistat).

However, Viread is the foundation on which Gilead's newer drugs are built upon, which could make it a liability when its patent expires in 2017. Last quarter, Gilead's HIV drugs generated $2.3 billion in sales, accounting for 85% of its top line.

2013 represented the first full year that Stribild, which was approved last September, was on the market. Sales of Stribild soared 722% year-over-year to $144 million, despite some criticism of its controversial wholesale price of $28,500 per patient per year. By comparison, Atripla was originally launched in 2006 at $13,800, but has since risen to Complera's wholesale price of $20,500.

ViiV's Tivicay is a potential blockbuster

Meanwhile, ViiV Healthcare, a company formed by GlaxoSmithKline and Pfizer in 2009 to focus on developing HIV treatments, gained FDA approval for its HIV drug Tivicay in August. The drug also received a positive opinion from the CHMP in Europe in November.

Tivicay is an integrase inhibitor -- a new class of HIV drugs which gained attention with the approval of Merck's Isentress in 2007. Both drugs inhibit a viral enzyme, known as integrase, which integrates retroviral DNA into a host cell's genome.

Tivicay was originally developed by Shionogi, which owns 10% of Viiv. Glaxo and Pfizer respectively own the remaining 76.5% and 13.5% of the company. Although Tivicay must be taken with two other generically available HIV drugs, Ziagen and Zeffix, the combined treatment is substantially cheaper than Gilead's newer drugs, with a wholesale price of $14,105 per year.

Tivicay's sales are expected to reach $900 million by 2017, with the potential to hit annual peak sales of $5 billion. Tivicay could help turn around ViiV's declining sales over the last few quarters, which was caused by generic competition for Combivir, Epivir, and other products in the U.S.

HIV vaccines show promise

A vaccine has been the elusive holy grail of HIV treatments. Back in 1984, U.S. Health and Human Services Secretary Margaret Heckler famously suggested that a vaccine for AIDS would be available within two years.

However, nearly three decades later, the closest that researchers have come to that goal is RV 144, an HIV vaccine which showed promising results in a clinical trial between 2003 and 2009 in Thailand.

The initial study of RV 144 showed that patients given the vaccine had a 31.2% lower rate of infection than those given a placebo. More specifically, 51 out of 8,197 volunteers given the vaccine contracted HIV, compared to 74 who were given the placebo. However, considering the size of the trial group, it's difficult to determine if the vaccine had any effect all.

According to the original study, there was only a 4% chance that the vaccine was not effective, but a 2011 study conducted at Duke University determined that there was actually a 29% chance that it was not effective. Nevertheless, RV 144 is still considered a suitable candidate for large scale research.

Inovio Pharmaceuticals' next-generation vaccines are also worth keeping an eye on. The company has an extremely promising pipeline full of vaccines for cancer, hepatitis B and C, malaria, and HIV.

Inovio's approach is special because it uses two new technologies -- electroporation, which delivers the vaccine through brief electric pulses, and synthetic DNA, which is designed to stimulate an immune system response. It is currently working on three HIV vaccines:

Vaccine

Focus

Status

PENNVAX-B

Strains in North America and Europe

2 Phase 1 studies (infected and non-infected) completed

PENNVAX-G

Collaboration with U.S. Military HIV Research Program

Phase 1 study initiated by U.S. Military HIV Research Program

PENNVAX-GP

Strains in Africa and Asia

Plans to initiate a phase 1 trial in the first half of 2014

Source: Company website.

Although all three vaccines are still in early stage trials, Inovio's method of stimulating an immune system response via synthetic DNA could be a promising new approach to treating HIV. Most importantly, they are being tested as preventative and therapeutic vaccines, meaning that they could be used to treat both non-infected and infected patients.

The Foolish takeaway

Looking ahead into 2014, convenient combination treatments like Gilead's Stribild could substantially improve the daily lives of patients. In addition, newer integrase inhibitors like Isentress and Tivicay could chip away at the dominance of Viread-based drugs.

HIV vaccines, now nearly three decades overdue, could eventually arrive as well. RV 144 and Inovio's HIV vaccines are two promising projects which could eventually save millions of lives and render HIV cocktail drugs from Gilead and ViiV Healthcare obsolete.

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Read/Post Comments (8) | Recommend This Article (1)

Comments from our Foolish Readers

Help us keep this a respectfully Foolish area! This is a place for our readers to discuss, debate, and learn more about the Foolish investing topic you read about above. Help us keep it clean and safe. If you believe a comment is abusive or otherwise violates our Fool's Rules, please report it via the Report this Comment Report this Comment icon found on every comment.

  • Report this Comment On December 29, 2013, at 9:20 PM, Madisonmc wrote:

    Good INO PR. Thanks. Just as an FYI, PENNVAX-B is being discontinued with the learnings from the trials being put into PENNVAX-GP. Bigger...better..HIV vaccination

  • Report this Comment On January 10, 2014, at 4:46 PM, 1AmericanGreed wrote:

    They will not make a cure for HIV?

    why? there's no money in cures, all the money is in treatments, Big Pharma gave up on cures, making treatments and requirement and takes patient money! average atripla treamtment 24,000 a yr X 25 yrs that's $600,000 a person. They cannot cure for that profit! HIV for LIFE! make them live longer more money they profit!

  • Report this Comment On February 22, 2014, at 5:57 AM, Sophia11221 wrote:

    My name is Sophia Precious, i am from New York City. I was suffering from HIV for over 4 years, i was hopeless until one of my friend directed me to a man called Dr Enoma, she said he cures the sickness and also said he has also helped her friend, i never believed her but after a lot of talk, i decided to give him a try, just few days ago i contacted him and he told me what to do which i did and he cast a spell for me and told me to go for a test which i also did and when the result came out i was surprised to see that i am negative. I am proud to tell you the i am the most happiest person on earth. Gig thanks to Dr Enoma grate spell...... If you are having any problem and you need help, You can contact him with his email dr.enomaspellhome@gmail.com or Phone Number: +2348128523785.... i pray you find solution in him just i did.

  • Report this Comment On March 07, 2014, at 8:14 PM, fredsauquillo wrote:

    Please help me thank Dr Enoma for his good work I really believe HIV has no cure I was HIV positive over since 3 year plus before I come across a comment about Dr Enoma that he have cure to any disease and virus but when I saw it i have it in mind that he can’t cure HIV I just decided to give a try I contact him that night luckily to me he said yes but I don’t believe him I think it was a scam or some thing like that but I still hold on to see the work of Dr Enoma if he is saying the true, he ask for different thing and some question about me I give him all the details he needed and I waited to see his reply to my problem. After all the things is done he ask me to go for check up I went for hiv test I cant believe i became hiv negative thanks to Dr Enoma for helping me cure my disease. if you need help of any kind you can contact him now with his Email: dr.enomaspellhome@gmail.com or call +2348128523785.

  • Report this Comment On April 29, 2014, at 6:09 AM, Sarahwyane wrote:

    Good day everyone, my name is Miss Sarah from USA, i have been suffering from HIV/Aids for over 4years now, and suddenly,i have spent all my money,all to make sure i get healthy all day no good result,but happily last month February 12th 2014, i came in contact with a traditional doctor also known as a chief priest on a newspaper who is called Great Eagle,who help me to cure effective called aids, firstly i taught it was a joke until i go for check up.please viewers,contact this man for your healing on his email address here,eaglespellcenter@gmail.com,try and see...

  • Report this Comment On April 29, 2014, at 6:11 AM, Sarahwyane wrote:

    Good day everyone, my name is Miss Sarah from USA, i have been suffering from HIV/Aids for over 4years now, and suddenly,i have spent all my money,all to make sure i get healthy all day no good result,but happily last month February 12th 2014, i came in contact with a traditional doctor also known as a chief priest on a newspaper who is called Great Eagle,who help me to cure effective called aids, firstly i taught it was a joke until i go for check up.please viewers,contact this man for your healing on his email address here,eaglespellcenter@gmail.com,try and see...

  • Report this Comment On August 10, 2014, at 4:43 AM, Beatricemark wrote:

    Am Beatrice mark.I was HIV/AIDS positive for 3 years and i have been contacting fake Doctors who ran away with my hard earn money i felt hopeless, until i saw a testimony of how the lord spiritual has been

    healing people suffering from HIV and other diseases,i decided to give him a try by contacting him and today am free.i want to express a heart felt

    appreciation to the LORD SPIRITUAL for healing me. I have directed people with Cancer, Barren women,

    and those with different problem to him and he favored them differently.I have not seen any one as powerful as the

    lord spiritual. Just put him to test and see what he can do. (Seen is believing).for more information contact me on beatricemark0032@gmail.com.

    I vowed to testify of what he has done. For any problem just contact or email him on LORDSPIRITUAL@OUTLOOK.COM

  • Report this Comment On August 10, 2014, at 4:44 AM, Beatricemark wrote:

    Am Beatrice mark.I was HIV/AIDS positive for 3 years and i have been contacting fake Doctors who ran away with my hard earn money i felt hopeless, until i saw a testimony of how the lord spiritual has been

    healing people suffering from HIV and other diseases,i decided to give him a try by contacting him and today am free.i want to express a heart felt

    appreciation to the LORD SPIRITUAL for healing me. I have directed people with Cancer, Barren women,

    and those with different problem to him and he favored them differently.I have not seen any one as powerful as the

    lord spiritual. Just put him to test and see what he can do. (Seen is believing).for more information contact me on beatricemark0032@gmail.com.

    I vowed to testify of what he has done. For any problem just contact or email him on LORDSPIRITUAL@OUTLOOK.COM.

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