Track the companies that matter to you. It's FREE! Click one of these fan favorites to get started: Apple; Google; Ford.



Talk to As Many Investors As You Possibly Can

Money manager Jeremy Grantham says the S&P 500 is 75% overvalued. This is nothing new. He said stocks were 40% overvalued in 2011 and was sounding the overvalued alarm in late 2009, when the index traded at half its current value. He was bearish most of last decade, too.

Grantham has been mocked as a perma-bear. This is unfair -- he was bullish in early 2009, when stocks bottomed -- but understandable given his near-constant warning of caution (his latest worry is a global food shortage).

Where does Grantham's pessimistic demeanor come from? This quote, from Maggie Mahar's book Bull!, might help explain:

In 1968, a self-described "gun-slinging nitwit," fresh out of Harvard Business School, Grantham played the go-go market at its peak. By 1970, he had lost all of his money. "I like to say I got wiped out before anyone else knew the bear market started," Grantham recalled years later.

Think about that. The man who today relentlessly warns of risk began his investing career by losing all of his money and then sitting through a 12-year bear market.

What lasting impact did this have on his outlook? How did this experience influence his opinion of markets today?

Likely, a lot.

People like to assume they can think objectively. But you and I are just a product of the experiences we've had in life. And most of those experiences were random and out of our control. Would Grantham hold his bearish stance if, by luck, he began his investing career at the start of a bull market? Or doubled his money his first year out of college, rather than losing it all?

There's evidence to suggest the answer is "no."

In 2006, Ulrike Malmendier of U.C. Berkeley and Stefan Nagel of Stanford University looked at how various cohorts of Americans differed in their views about investing.

Controlling for age, wealth, income, and other social factors, how the economy performed during people's young-adult years had a profound impact on how they invested later in life.

Those who grew up during the Great Depression were half as likely to invest in stocks as adults compared with those raised during the roaring 1960s. Those who grew up during the inflationary 1970s were less likely to invest in bonds later in life than those raised during the stable 1950s. Growing up during the prosperous 1980s made you highly likely to favor stocks during the 1990s. "Our findings suggest that individual investors' willingness to bear financial risk depends on personal history," the authors wrote.

This seems obvious, but there's an important takeaway: One person's view of risk can be completely different than someone else's. And not because one person is smarter or has better insight than another, but simply because they were born in a different year.

Of course, living through something like the Great Depression could make you wiser. You've experienced something younger generations haven't. But that doesn't necessarily make you better at managing risk. It could just as likely make you dangerously too conservative in the future.

Emotional experiences also have a downside: Memories are often distorted, so much so that some of what we remember never actually occurred.

For decades, psychologists have interviewed people who had an emotional experience, sprinkled in some fake prompts, and watched their memories fool them on the spot. In one famous example, Lawrence Patihis of U.C. Irvine discussed 9/11 with a group of research subjects, and found that, when prompted, many could vividly describe seeing video of Flight 93 crash into a field in Pennsylvania (this video, of course, doesn't exist). "It just seemed like something was falling out of the sky," one participant said. "I was just, you know, kind of stunned by watching it go down." They weren't lying. This is a common flaw when recalling emotional experiences, as we try to forget painful memories and replace them with pleasant thoughts. In his book Omaha Beach, Joseph Balkoski writes that, "one firm lesson that serious World War II researchers have learned is that the reliability of human memory varies drastically from one veteran to the next." Veterans recalled experiences historians could verify were inaccurate. Time, Balkoski writes, "can play subtle tricks on the mind, and the historian's thorniest problem is to separate those rare fully substantiated accounts from the more typical yarns that time has established." Psychologist Daniel Kahneman calls this the "experiencing self" and the "remembering self." They can be two completely different minds.

If someone's view of risk is influenced by what year they were born, and people's memories of emotional events may not even be accurate, there's an obvious lesson: When seeking advice, you should consult a variety of different people of different ages and backgrounds who have experienced different things in life. 

This isn't a substitute for skill. But if you get all of your investment advice from 50-year-old white guys, you will get opinions from people whose worldview is colored by similar experiences. And those experiences may be incomplete, not relevant to today's world, and biased in thinking the future will resemble their specific past.

A common trait you'll see among the world's best investors is an open and flexible mind. They are happy to hear diverse opinions from people of all different ages and backgrounds. This isn't because they're nice, but because they understand everyone is biased to their own experiences, and that no group has a monopoly on wisdom. Think about the last five years, when lots of angry old men were hyperventilating about looming hyperinflation and the coming collapse of the dollar, while a bunch of college kids who were "ignorant of history" were busy building billion-dollar tech companies. Not being constrained by past experiences can be incredibly valuable.

Check back every Tuesday and Friday for Morgan Housel's columns on finance and economics. 

Read/Post Comments (4) | Recommend This Article (35)

Comments from our Foolish Readers

Help us keep this a respectfully Foolish area! This is a place for our readers to discuss, debate, and learn more about the Foolish investing topic you read about above. Help us keep it clean and safe. If you believe a comment is abusive or otherwise violates our Fool's Rules, please report it via the Report this Comment Report this Comment icon found on every comment.

  • Report this Comment On April 03, 2014, at 6:52 PM, cmalek wrote:

    Define "risk"

    Define "managing risk"

    Spoken/written language is an imprecise form of communication. It depends too much on how different people interpret the same words.

  • Report this Comment On April 03, 2014, at 8:46 PM, lwbaum wrote:

    Thanks for your very interesting articles on the psychological aspects of economics. Emotion plays an important yet underappreciated role in this science, and we as individuals and as society could benefit from understanding this better.

  • Report this Comment On April 04, 2014, at 5:47 PM, drborst wrote:

    Morgan, Not your best work. You're bordering on Wisdom of Crowds talk here... and yet you have written articles on how the average investor is mostly wrong.

    But the bigger problem is listening to investment advice from different people leads to the Facebook bias, where everyone talks about their success and not their failure.

    Enough rant, assuming I read your article for investment advice instead of entertainment, which 'diversity of opinion' box do I put you in? I'm going to guess (based on your picture) that you're a white guy born in the late 1970's or early 80's. Putting you in the "growing up in the prosperous 80's" category who liked stock in the 90's. Am I close?


  • Report this Comment On April 05, 2014, at 6:05 AM, Mathman6577 wrote:

    If you listen to bears (like Grantham) you won' ever invest and if you listen to bulls you will always invest and if you listen to a little of both you will be listening to Warren Buffett, Charlie Munger, and Peter Lynch. The best thing to do is to stay invested, diversify, delay gratification (look long-term), and turn off CNBC.

Add your comment.

Sponsored Links

Leaked: Apple's Next Smart Device
(Warning, it may shock you)
The secret is out... experts are predicting 458 million of these types of devices will be sold per year. 1 hyper-growth company stands to rake in maximum profit - and it's NOT Apple. Show me Apple's new smart gizmo!

DocumentId: 2900521, ~/Articles/ArticleHandler.aspx, 9/4/2015 12:18:58 AM

Report This Comment

Use this area to report a comment that you believe is in violation of the community guidelines. Our team will review the entry and take any appropriate action.

Sending report...

Morgan Housel

Economics and finance columnist for Analyst, Motley Fool One.
More Articles

Today's Market

updated 3 hours ago Sponsored by:
DOW 16,374.76 23.38 0.14%
S&P 500 1,951.13 2.27 0.12%
NASD 4,733.50 -16.48 -0.35%

Create My Watchlist

Go to My Watchlist

You don't seem to be following any stocks yet!

Better investing starts with a watchlist. Now you can create a personalized watchlist and get immediate access to the personalized information you need to make successful investing decisions.

Data delayed up to 5 minutes

Related Tickers

9/3/2015 4:35 PM
^GSPC $1951.13 Up +2.27 +0.12%
S&P 500 INDEX CAPS Rating: No stars