The Best Way to Invest Your IRA

Opening an IRA can put money back in your pocket. But once you've opened your account, what should you do with it?

For many, the hurdle of getting an IRA account open in the first place is the hardest thing to overcome. As the end of the year approaches, however, your desire to cut your taxes may help you get over that hurdle. After all, making a deductible IRA contribution can add $1,750 or more to your tax refund.

Yet IRA investors face a more daunting task once their accounts are open: how to choose investments that will make them the most money. Picking the right mix of investments for your IRA can save you thousands over your lifetime.

The growth-vs.-tax trade-off
After you get your initial tax deduction, the primary benefit of traditional IRAs is that they provide tax-deferred growth. No matter how much income your IRA investments earn, and no matter how often you trade within your IRA, you don't have to pay any taxes until you take money out of the account.

So at first glance, you'd think the best strategy would be to pick the best growth prospects for your IRA. Certainly, loading up your IRA portfolio with stocks like Quality Systems (Nasdaq: QSII  ) or ManTech International (Nasdaq: MANT  ) would have boosted your retirement savings in a hurry. And in an IRA, you don't have to worry about taxes on steady dividend payers such as Merck (NYSE: MRK  ) , Coca-Cola (NYSE: KO  ) , or Johnson & Johnson (NYSE: JNJ  ) .

But as The Motley Fool's retirement expert Robert Brokamp has examined in his Rule Your Retirement newsletter, most investors should think about more than just getting their IRAs as big as possible. Including more conservative investments in your IRA may not help them grow as quickly, but it can have a big impact on how much you pay in taxes.

Favored status for stocks
Under current tax law, stocks get much better tax treatment than many other investments. The top rate for qualified stock dividends is 15%. That's also the most you can pay on capital gains for investments you own longer than a year. In contrast, you'll pay up to 35% on other income, such as interest from bonds or CDs.

The main drawback of IRAs is that you lose that 15% rate for your stocks. Everything you take out of your IRA gets taxed at your ordinary rate. So if you put all of your stocks in your IRA and leave all your bonds in a taxable account, you'll get hit twice: You'll pay your ordinary rate every year on the interest from your bonds, and you'll pay the ordinary rate again when you start taking distributions after you retire.

The example below shows how this works, assuming you invest for five years and then take everything out of your IRA when you retire in the fifth year.

Year

Year-End IRA Value

Year-End Taxable Account Value (Pre-Tax)

Taxes Paid on Taxable Account

Taxes Paid on IRA

Total Year-End Portfolio Value (After Tax)

1

$11,000

$10,500

($175)

$0

$21,325

2

$12,100

$10,841

($181)

$0

$22,761

3

$13,310

$11,194

($187)

$0

$24,317

4

$14,641

$11,557

($193)

$0

$26,006

5

$16,105

$11,933

($199)

($2,137)

$25,702

Assumes a starting position of $10,000 each in stocks and bonds, with all stocks in IRA; 10% stock return, 5% bond return, 35% tax on IRA distributions and interest. Numbers may not add because of rounding.

But say you buy some bonds in your IRA, and some stocks in your taxable account. By sheltering the high-tax bonds while paying lower taxes on your stocks, you actually come out ahead, even if you sell everything when you retire. Here's how the math works out.

Year

Year-End IRA Value

Year-End Taxable Account Value

Taxes Paid on Taxable Account

Taxes Paid on IRA

Total Year-End Portfolio Value

1

$10,750

$10,750

($106)

$0

$21,394

2

$11,563

$11,450

($111)

$0

$22,902

3

$12,443

$12,206

($116)

$0

$24,534

4

$13,398

$13,025

($121)

$0

$26,302

5

$14,434

$13,910

($467)

($1,552)

$26,324

Assumes a starting position of $10,000 each in stocks and bonds, distributed 50/50 in IRA and taxable account; 10% stock return composed of 2.5% dividends and 7.5% capital gains, 5% bond return, 35% tax on IRA distributions and interest. Numbers may not add because of rounding.

This might not seem like much of a difference. But examples with a longer time frame show even more savings.

The key is that with stocks, you decide when you pay capital gains. So why not put all of your stocks into a taxable account? While blue-chip stalwarts such as IBM (NYSE: IBM  ) or Wal-Mart (NYSE: WMT  ) may be suitable to buy and hold over long periods, you'll probably want to buy and sell at least some stocks more actively. If you keep your stock trading within your IRA while keeping good buy-and-hold investments (like stock index funds) in a taxable account, you'll avoid paying tax as your portfolio turns over.

When you're investing for your IRA, don't automatically shoot for the moon by putting everything into stocks. By taking your taxable investments into account, you can find a balance that will help you cut your taxes and end up with more at retirement.

For more IRA Foolishness:

Investing tips are just part of what our Rule Your Retirement newsletter service talks about every month. Learn how to save more and what you need to do to cut expenses during retirement. Take a free look for 30 days with no obligation.

This article was originally published on Dec. 13, 2007. It has been updated by Dan Caplinger, who doesn't own shares of the companies mentioned. Johnson & Johnson is a Motley Fool Income Investor pick. Wal-Mart Stores and Coca-Cola are Motley Fool Inside Value selections. Quality Systems is a Motley Fool Stock Advisor pick. Try any of our Foolish newsletter services free for 30 days. The Fool's disclosure policy tells it like it is.


Read/Post Comments (6) | Recommend This Article (28)

Comments from our Foolish Readers

Help us keep this a respectfully Foolish area! This is a place for our readers to discuss, debate, and learn more about the Foolish investing topic you read about above. Help us keep it clean and safe. If you believe a comment is abusive or otherwise violates our Fool's Rules, please report it via the Report this Comment Report this Comment icon found on every comment.

  • Report this Comment On January 22, 2009, at 9:29 PM, trenton1ryan wrote:

    Okay, but what about a Roth IRA?? I want divvy stocks in my IRA AND I don't want to pay taxes on those divvies along the way, so I'll take the Roth. This is 2009, not 2005. Also, medium term holds would be good for my Roth too.

    I have a taxable account as well, and will only use that for long term holds that pay little to no divvies but would be great bets for long term growth (CHK for example).

  • Report this Comment On January 26, 2009, at 5:40 AM, GimliJan wrote:

    I too am investing in stocks thru a Roth IRA. I setup my online trading account (Firstrade) that way so I will pay the taxes now on my stocks and dividends. I figure that the way the government is helping us with all the "bailout/stimulus" plans, we are headed for double digit inflation in the next 10 years. That means that the tax rates will be higher to afford all the tax money that is being spent on these plans, plus fund the current programs for social security and medicare/medicaid.

    I am a member of Robert's RYR newsletter and would be interested in hearing what he thinks about the logic of using the Roth IRA for short, mid and long term holdings of dividend stocks.

  • Report this Comment On April 12, 2009, at 8:47 PM, duckbob wrote:

    Eek! What if I've already made the mistakes described in this article? My IRAs - both Roth and Traditional - have stock index funds. Can I sell those and purchase Bond funds within that same IRA? If so, will my tax rate be based on stock appreciation or on the bond value?

  • Report this Comment On December 06, 2009, at 2:15 AM, Boz5956242011 wrote:

    it is essential to know your tax rate.

    Consider another comparison:

    you earn $10000 which you choose to invest.

    401k or traditional IRA invest $10000.

    Roth IRA, pay government your tax rate, say 20%, or $2000, invest $8000.

    5 yrs later Roth bond@5% equals $10,210.

    Traditional IRA Bond equals $12763

    Cash out traditional IRA, what is tax rate? 20%?

    Pay government 20% or $2553 leaving $10,210, same as Roth.

    Keep Bonds in taxable account, and pay taxes from Bond account every year, 20% of interest, also invest $8000 because you start with taxed $. After 5 yrs you have $9771.

    Roth or traditional makes sense based on which rate is higher, now (traditional) or future (Roth).

  • Report this Comment On April 01, 2011, at 8:31 PM, Philinbos wrote:

    One thought on Roth vs Traditional IRA's... ( I have both) especially for younger folks - Do you trust Congress not to change the rules sometime in the future as the total amount invested in Roths grow...

    Unemployment insurance payments are now taxable... They are fiddling with Social Security...Some time down the road the Roth in particular may become a convenient target..

  • Report this Comment On April 12, 2013, at 2:15 PM, dustinlauer wrote:

    Many of my friends and private investors are buying mortgage notes at low LTV on properties held in trust in the state of Florida. Good way to earn upwards of 8% APR safely in a selfdirected IRA. I work with a lot of people through nuview ira and my own company is secured investment lending. Self directed IRAs and roth in higher tax brackets (and the way our govt seems to be looking to increase taxes on working folks)... - Dustin 407.900.9080

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