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Christy Bieber
Ashley Maready
By: Christy Bieber and Ashley Maready

Our Mortgages Experts

Eric McWhinnie
Check IconFact Checked Eric McWhinnie
Many or all of the products here are from our partners that compensate us. It’s how we make money. But our editorial integrity ensures our experts’ opinions aren’t influenced by compensation. Terms may apply to offers listed on this page.

Shopping for a mortgage can be confusing because of all the unfamiliar words used by your mortgage lender. In fact, one question that may arise early on is, what is PITI?

PITI is actually an acronym. It stands for principal, interest, taxes, and insurance. It's necessary to calculate PITI for every potential mortgage loan, as this calculation can determine whether you'll be approved for the financing you need to buy a home.

You not only need to be able to answer the question of what PITI is, but you also need to know how to calculate yours. Here's a closer look.

What is PITI?

PITI stands for the key components of your mortgage payment. They include principal, interest, taxes, and insurance. You can use our mortgage calculator to get a feel for some of these costs.

Principal and interest

The first big monthly cost you'll incur as a homeowner is your mortgage loan repayment. You're charged a certain amount each month toward your loan principal and interest throughout the mortgage term.

If you borrowed at a fixed rate, this should remain the same throughout the loan term. If you have an adjustable rate mortgage, your monthly payment could fluctuate. It's calculated based on interest accrued plus the portion of your principal balance you'd have to pay to get the balance to $0 by the end of the term. It's also important to note that at the start of your mortgage term, more of your payment will go toward interest than your principal balance. Over time, this will change, and near the end of your loan term, more of your money will go to the principal.

The "P" and "I" in PITI stand for Principal and Interest.


Your monthly mortgage payment isn't the only cost you incur when you buy a home. You also have to pay real estate or property taxes. The amount of tax you owe is based on the tax rate where you live and the appraised value of your property. It must be considered when determining the cost of homeownership.

Some lenders require you to add your tax payment to your monthly mortgage payment. If so, your lender puts the money into what's called a mortgage escrow account and uses it to pay your taxes when they're due. If you waive mortgage escrow, you won't have to pay a portion of the tax bill to your lender each month. But you still need to factor real estate taxes into your housing costs.

Taxes are the "T" in PITI and estimating your tax bill is a key part of figuring out what PITI will cost you.


Finally, lenders require you to buy homeowners insurance to protect your home because your property is the collateral that secures the loan. It's a good idea to first determine how much homeowners insurance you need.

Insurance payments may need to be paid into escrow on a monthly basis, in which case the lender would pay the insurer when the bill is due. Be aware that homeowners insurance may not cover all home mishaps. For example, if you are buying a home in an area with a high risk of flooding, you may need additional flood insurance.

If you've waived escrow, you'd be responsible for paying the insurance cost yourself, but the monthly amount due is still factored in. If the down payment on your home is less than 20%, you're also required to pay private mortgage insurance (PMI). PMI protects the lender in case you default.

The insurance payments are the other "I" in PITI and now you know the answer to the question, "What is PITI?".

HOA dues

Finally, if you're required to pay homeowners association fees, your lender may factor those into PITI as well. That means you'll need to know if you're buying in an HOA neighborhood when calculating your own PITI.

Why does PITI matter?

Looking beyond what PITI is, you also need to know why it's so important.

PITI matters because lenders use this number to determine how much you're allowed to borrow to buy a home. Mortgage lenders don't just loan a borrower an unlimited amount of money. They want to make sure you're able to afford to pay back your loan -- and they'll consider your debt-to-income ratio to determine that.

Your debt-to-income ratio, or DTI, is the amount of debt you have relative to income. There's both a front-end ratio and a back-end ratio and both use PITI in the calculations.

Your front-end ratio

The front-end ratio simply compares PITI to your gross monthly income, without taking any of your other debts into account.

Let's say your monthly payment toward principal and interest on the mortgage, plus your taxes and insurance, adds up to $1,200 per month. This is the number used to determine your ratio. If your monthly gross income is $5,000 per month, you can divide $1,200 by $5,000 to learn that your front-end debt-to-income ratio is 24%.

Lenders typically want to see a front-end debt-to-income ratio of around 28% at most. If yours is higher, you may not be approved for a home loan or your interest rate might be higher because you present a bigger risk of defaulting on a mortgage. Some of the best mortgage lenders for first-time home buyers may be more forgiving, though, so be sure to shop around for a loan.

Your back-end ratio

The back-end ratio takes your PITI payment into account, along with your other monthly debt obligations. If you have a loan payment, a car payment, and a credit card payment, those are factored in.

If your PITI was $1,200 and your other monthly expenses added up to $600 per month, your back-end ratio would equal $1,800 divided by $5,000, or 36%. Typically, banks prefer your back-end ratio to be 36% or lower, although some lenders allow you to go as high as 43%.

If your debt-to-income ratios are low, you are more likely to qualify for a good mortgage rate -- especially if you have a good credit score. If your DTI is too high, you may need to buy a less expensive house so you can borrow less and lower your PITI. Or, you could pay down other debt to get a better back-end ratio and increase your chances of loan approval.

Since you'll need to come up with a plan, it's helpful to know what PITI is, and calculate yours early in the process.

PITI could also be used to calculate reserve requirements

In some cases, mortgage lenders require you to have a certain amount of cash reserves before you can be approved for a loan. Mortgage lenders put reserve requirements in place to ensure you're able to keep paying your mortgage bills, even if you lose your income for a while.

The reserve requirement varies by lender, but two months of PITI is common. So, if your PITI was $1,200, the lender would require you to show you have $2,400 in a savings account before it would approve your loan.

The possibility you'll have to put money in a deposit account is another good reason to consider how much PITI will be when you buy a home.

You can calculate PITI when shopping for a home

There's no sense in falling in love with a home you can't afford. To avoid this, you can calculate PITI for any home you're considering.

You just need to know the taxes, estimated insurance costs, and what your likely mortgage payment would be. Once you know this number, you can determine if you're likely to be approved for a loan from the best mortgage lenders based on your debt-to-income ratio. And this way, you can also determine whether your housing payment will be affordable.

Still have questions?

Here are some other questions we've answered:

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  • To avoid becoming house poor (where your housing costs eat up so much of your income that you can't afford to save money or spend on other important expenses), it's best to keep your housing payments (consisting of PITI) to 28% or less of your pay.

  • Your initial down payment on a home isn't included in a PITI calculation, but it does directly impact it -- the higher down payment you make, the lower your mortgage principal (P for PITI) will be. Any maintenance costs on your home are also not included in PITI, and it's important to save money for these separately.

Our Mortgages Experts