Numbers can lie -- but they're the best first step in determining whether a stock is a buy. In this series, we use some carefully chosen metrics to size up a stock's true value based on the following clues:

  • The current price multiples.
  • The consistency of past earnings and cash flow.
  • How much growth we can expect.

Let's see what those numbers can tell us about how expensive or cheap Golden Star Resources (AMEX: GSS) might be.

The current price multiples
First, we'll look at most investors' favorite metric: the P/E ratio. It divides the company's share price by its earnings per share (EPS) -- the lower, the better.

Then, we'll take things up a notch with a more advanced metric: enterprise value to unlevered free cash flow. This divides the company's enterprise value (basically, its market cap plus its debt, minus its cash) by its unlevered free cash flow (its free cash flow, adding back the interest payments on its debt). Like the P/E, the lower this number is, the better.

Analysts argue about which is more important -- earnings or cash flow. Who cares? A good buy ideally has low multiples on both.

Golden Star has a P/E ratio of -101.5 and an EV/FCF ratio of 17.9 over the trailing 12 months. If we stretch and compare current valuations to the five-year averages for earnings and free cash flow, Golden Star has a P/E ratio of -51.4 and a five-year EV/FCF ratio of -23.1.

A positive one-year ratio under 10 for both metrics is ideal. For a five-year metric, under 20 is ideal.

Golden Star is zero for four on hitting the ideal targets, but let's see how it compares against some competitors and industry mates. 

Company

1-Year P/E

1-Year EV/FCF

5-Year P/E

5-Year EV/FCF

Golden Star NM 17.9 NM NM
Northgate Minerals (AMEX: NXG) NM NM 123.5 12.7
Agnico-Eagle Mines (NYSE: AEM) 33.1 105.6 73.4 NM
Hecla Mining (NYSE: HL) 53.6 17.8 76.1 44.6

Source: Capital IQ, a division of Standard & Poor's; NM = not meaningful.

Numerically, we've seen how Golden Star's valuation rates on both an absolute and relative basis. Next, let's examine ...

The consistency of past earnings and cash flow
An ideal company will be consistently strong in its earnings and cash flow generation.

In the past five years, Golden Star's net income margin has ranged from -46.4% to 52.8%. In that same time frame, unlevered free cash flow margin has ranged from -128.9% to 17.2%.

How do those figures compare with those of the company's peers? See for yourself:

Gssmarginrangesv

Source: Capital IQ, a division of Standard & Poor's; margin ranges are combined.

Additionally, over the last five years, Golden Star has tallied up two years of positive earnings and two years of positive free cash flow.

Next, let's figure out ...

How much growth we can expect
Analysts tend to comically overstate their five-year growth estimates. If you accept them at face value, you will overpay for stocks. But while you should definitely take the analysts' prognostications with a grain of salt, they can still provide a useful starting point when compared to similar numbers from a company's closest rivals.

Let's start by seeing what this company's done over the past five years. Due to losses, Golden Star's trailing growth rate isn't meaningful.

Here's how Golden Star compares to its peers for trailing five-year growth (Northgate and Hecla also have losses that make their trailing growth rates unmeaningful):

Gsstrailing

Source: Capital IQ, a division of Standard & Poor's; EPS growth shown.

And here's how it measures up with regard to the growth analysts expect over the next five years (my data provider doesn't list any analyst estimates for Golden Star, but Yahoo! Finance lists 10%):

Gss

Source: Capital IQ, a division of Standard & Poor's; estimates for EPS growth.

The bottom line
The pile of numbers we've plowed through has shown us the price multiples shares of Golden Star are trading at, the volatility of its operational performance, and what kind of growth profile it has -- both on an absolute and a relative basis.

The more consistent a company's performance has been and the more growth we can expect, the more we should be willing to pay. We've gone well beyond looking at a negative P/E ratio, and the initial numbers aren't very compelling, especially if you agree with my Foolish colleague Alex Dumortier that gold is now three-times overpriced. But if you find Golden Star's numbers or story compelling, don't stop. Continue your due diligence process until you're confident one way or the other. As a start, add it to My Watchlist to find all of our Foolish analysis.

If you want some more stock ideas, check out my recent article "The Greatest Companies of 2020."

Anand Chokkavelu doesn't own shares in any company mentioned. The Fool owns shares of Northgate Minerals. Try any of our Foolish newsletter services free for 30 days. We Fools may not all hold the same opinions, but we all believe that considering a diverse range of insights makes us better investors. The Motley Fool has a disclosure policy.