Numbers can lie -- but they're the best first step in determining whether a stock is a buy. In this series, we use some carefully chosen metrics to size up a stock's true value based on the following clues:

  • The current price multiples.
  • The consistency of past earnings and cash flow.
  • How much growth we can expect.

Let's see what those numbers can tell us about how expensive or cheap Steel Dynamics (Nasdaq: STLD) might be.

The current price multiples
First, we'll look at most investors' favorite metric: the P/E ratio. It divides the company's share price by its earnings per share -- the lower, the better.

Then, we'll take things up a notch with a more advanced metric: enterprise value to unlevered free cash flow. This divides the company's enterprise value (basically, its market cap plus its debt, minus its cash) by its unlevered free cash flow (its free cash flow, adding back the interest payments on its debt). Like the P/E, the lower this number is, the better.

Analysts argue about which is more important -- earnings or cash flow. Who cares? A good buy ideally has low multiples on both.

Steel Dynamics has a P/E ratio of 20.6 and an EV/FCF ratio of 67.2 over the trailing 12 months. If we stretch and compare current valuations to the five-year averages for earnings and free cash flow, Steel Dynamics has a P/E ratio of 13.2 and a five-year EV/FCF ratio of 28.7.

A positive one-year ratio under 10 for both metrics is ideal. For a five-year metric, under 20 is ideal.

Steel Dynamics has a mixed performance in hitting the ideal targets, but let's see how it compares against some competitors and industry mates. 

Company

1-Year P/E

1-Year EV/FCF

5-Year P/E

5-Year EV/FCF

Steel Dynamics

20.6

67.2

13.2

28.7

Nucor (NYSE: NUE)

51.5

24.5

14.5

13.3

AK Steel Holding (NYSE: AKS)

NM

NM

39.1

NM

United States Steel (NYSE: X)

NM

NM

15.3

35.3

Source: Capital IQ, a division of Standard & Poor's; NM = not meaningful.

Numerically, we've seen how Steel Dynamics' valuation rates on both an absolute and relative basis. Next, let's examine ...

The consistency of past earnings and cash flow
An ideal company will be consistently strong in its earnings and cash flow generation.

In the past five years, Steel Dynamics' net income margin has ranged from 2.7% to 12.3%. In that same time frame, unlevered free cash flow margin has ranged from 1.3% to 7.8%.

How do those figures compare with those of the company's peers? See for yourself:

Stldmarginrangesv

Source: Capital IQ, a division of Standard & Poor's; margin ranges are combined.

Additionally, over the last five years, Steel Dynamics has tallied up five years of positive earnings and five years of positive free cash flow.

Next, let's figure out ...

How much growth we can expect
Analysts tend to comically overstate their five-year growth estimates. If you accept them at face value, you will overpay for stocks. But while you should definitely take the analysts' prognostications with a grain of salt, they can still provide a useful starting point when compared to similar numbers from a company's closest rivals.

Let's start by seeing what this company's done over the past five years. In that time period, Steel Dynamics has put up past EPS growth rates of -7.3%.

Here's how Steel Dynamics compares to its peers for trailing five-year growth (because of losses, AK Steel and U.S. Steel's trailing growth rates aren't meaningful):

Stldtrailing

Source: Capital IQ, a division of Standard & Poor's; EPS growth shown.

Meanwhile, analysts expect 31.9% growth for Steel Dynamics over the next five years versus 15% for Nucor, 10% for AK Steel, and 30% for U.S. Steel.

The bottom line
The pile of numbers we've plowed through has shown us the price multiples shares of Steel Dynamics are trading at, the volatility of its operational performance, and what kind of growth profile it has -- both on an absolute and a relative basis.

The more consistent a company's performance has been and the more growth we can expect, the more we should be willing to pay. We've gone well beyond looking at a 20.6 P/E ratio, and we see evidence of the tough time steel producers have been having. But, steel is a cyclical industry, and these initial numbers are just a start. If you find Steel Dynamics's numbers or story compelling, don't stop. Continue your due diligence process until you're confident one way or the other. As a start, add it to My Watchlist to find all of our Foolish analysis.

If you want some more stock ideas, check out my recent article: "The Greatest Companies of 2020."

Anand Chokkavelu doesn't own shares in any company mentioned. The Motley Fool owns shares of Nucor. Motley Fool newsletter services have recommended Nucor. Try any of our Foolish newsletter services free for 30 days. We Fools may not all hold the same opinions, but we all believe that considering a diverse range of insights makes us better investors. The Motley Fool has a disclosure policy.