We’d all like to invest like the legendary Warren Buffett, turning thousands into millions or more. Buffett analyzes companies by calculating return on invested capital (ROIC) in order to help determine whether a company has an economic moat -- the ability to earn returns on its money above that money’s cost.

ROIC is perhaps the most important metric in value investing. By determining a company’s ROIC, you can see how well it’s using the cash you entrust to it and whether it’s actually creating value for you. Simply, it divides a company’s operating profit by how much investment it took to get that profit. The formula is:

ROIC = net operating profit after taxes / invested capital

The nuances of the formula are explained in further detail here. This one-size-fits-all calculation cuts out many of the legal accounting tricks (such as excessive debt) that managers use to boost earnings numbers, and provides you with an apples-to-apples way to evaluate businesses, even across industries. The higher the ROIC, the more efficient the company uses capital.

Ultimately, we’re looking for companies that can invest their money at rates that are higher than the cost of capital, which for most businesses is between 8% and 12%. Ideally, we want to see ROIC above 12%, at a minimum, and a history of increasing returns, or at least steady returns, which indicate some durability to the company’s economic moat.

Let’s take a look at Affymetrix (Nasdaq: AFFX) and three of its industry peers, to see how efficiently they use cash. Here are the ROIC figures for each company over a few periods.

Company

TTM

1 Year Ago

3 Years Ago

5 Years Ago

Affymetrix 0.4% (3.5%)* 12.9% 4.1%*
Agilent Technologies
(NYSE: A)
21.5%**    9.2% 13.0% 11.7%
Illumina (Nasdaq: ILMN) 23.2% 14.5% 8.7%*** 9.9%
Life Technologies (Nasdaq: LIFE) 7.8% 7.3% 7.3% 3.8%

Source: Capital IQ, a division of Standard & Poor’s.
*Because AFFX did not report an effective tax rate, we used its 37% rate from 3 years ago.
** Because A did not report an effective tax rate, we used its 21% rate from 1 year ago.
***Because ILMN did not report an effective tax rate, we used its 38.5% rate from 1 year ago.

Affymetrix’s returns on invested capital have declined dramatically from three years ago, and are currently even lower than they were five years ago. The rest of the listed companies have seen growth in their ROIC over the same time period, suggesting that their respective competitive positions have improved.

Businesses with consistently high ROIC show that they’re efficiently using capital. They also have the ability to treat shareholders well, because they can then use their extra cash to pay out dividends to us, buy back shares, or further invest in their franchise. And healthy and growing dividends are something that Warren Buffett has long loved.

So for more successful investments, dig a little deeper than the earnings headlines to find the company’s ROIC. If you’d like to add these companies to your Watchlist, click below:

This article represents the opinion of the writer, who may disagree with the “official” recommendation position of a Motley Fool premium advisory service. We’re motley! Questioning an investing thesis -- even one of our own -- helps us all think critically about investing and make decisions that help us become smarter, happier, and richer.