Investing in stocks can make you rich. Just how rich and just how quickly you become wealthy varies considerably, of course. The important thing is to pick the right stocks that give you the best shot at delivering exceptional returns over a period of at least 10 years.

Three stocks that I think definitely hold that potential are Guardant Health (NASDAQ:GH), MongoDB (NASDAQ:MDB), and The Trade Desk (NASDAQ:TTD). Here's why these three growth stocks could make you rich.

Man smiling with hands out as money rains down from the sky

Image source: Getty Images.

1. Guardant Health

Guardant Health stands out as a leader in the promising area of liquid biopsy. When you think of a biopsy, an image probably comes to mind of a surgical procedure to remove tissue for sending off to a lab to determine if the tissue is cancerous. Liquid biopsy involves a simple blood test where cancer can be detected by finding tiny fragments of DNA in the blood that has broken off from a tumor.

Once just a dream, liquid biopsy is now a reality. Guardant Health currently markets two liquid biopsy products, Guardant360 and GuardantOMNI. The former product helps oncologists match up advanced-stage cancer patients with the best treatment option. The latter product helps drugmakers screen patients for clinical studies evaluating cancer drugs. Thanks to rapid adoption of both Guardant360 and GuardantOMNI, Guardant Health's revenue skyrocketed 178% year over year in the second quarter to $54 million.

The company thinks that the addressable market for these two products is around $6 billion in the U.S. alone. But there's an even bigger opportunity beckoning. Earlier this year, Guardant Health launched its Lunar assays for research use only. These assays help detect cancer at early stages and recurrence of cancer. The potential market for the Lunar assays is likely over $45 billion.

There are several other companies hoping to succeed in the liquid biopsy market. But Guardant Health has a head start with its market-leading comprehensive liquid biopsy products. With a market cap of around $6 billion, the company won't have to capture a huge chunk of its total addressable market to provide early investors with enormous returns.

2. MongoDB

The amount of data in the world is exploding. But the data of today, including video and social media posts, is unstructured. It doesn't fit into the tidy rows and columns that most of the leading databases were built to store and manage. MongoDB has the answer.

In 2007, the team that led Internet advertising company DoubleClick before it was acquired by Google, now a subsidiary of Alphabet, decided to build a database that was designed from the ground up for unstructured data to be accessed and managed from anywhere. Today, more than 15,000 customers use MongoDB.

The "mongo" in MongoDB is short for "humongous." And that's a good description of the opportunity for the company. The global database market is expected to grow from $64 billion in 2019 to around $98 billion within the next four years. With its sales likely to come in around $400 million this year, MongoDB has plenty of room to run.

Sure, MongoDB has some big competitors that will fight tooth-and-nail to hold on to their market share. But with its superior technology, MongoDB should be able to capture more than enough of the rapidly growing database market to handsomely reward investors.

3. The Trade Desk

There's a behind-the-scenes revolution going on in the advertising world that you might not be aware of. For a long time, ads were bought and sold through lengthy negotiations. Now, programmatic advertising, where software is used to buy and sell ads, has become the preferred option. Actually, there are two revolutions under way. Advertising is also shifting to the digital world.

The Trade Desk wins from both revolutions. It provides a software platform for advertising agencies to choose from over 500 billion digital ad opportunities each day, bidding on the targeted ads that should provide the best return on investment. 

This year, the global advertising market is expected to total $725 billion, with around $34 billion of it transacted through programmatic buying and selling. Within seven years, the market should reach $1 trillion -- and nearly all of the market will be programmatic (and digital). This provides a fantastic tailwind for The Trade Desk.

The Trade Desk isn't the only player on the buy side for programmatic advertising. But it's arguably the best. I think the stock will deliver sizzling returns for a long time to come.  

What they have in common

All three of these stocks have a few things in common. They're small, with market caps below $10 billion. They each have great products that offer significant value. And they each have massive total addressable markets. Those are ingredients that can lead to long-term success. And they just might make investors rich along the way.