Numbers can lie -- but they're the best first step in determining whether a stock is a buy. In this series, we use some carefully chosen metrics to size up a stock's true value based on the following clues:

  • The current price multiples.
  • The consistency of past earnings and cash flow.
  • How much growth we can expect.

Let's see what those numbers can tell us about how expensive or cheap Schnitzer Steel (Nasdaq: SCHN) might be.

The current price multiples
First, we'll look at most investors' favorite metric: the P/E ratio. It divides the company's share price by its earnings per share -- the lower, the better.

Then, we'll take things up a notch with a more advanced metric: enterprise value to unlevered free cash flow. This divides the company's enterprise value (basically, its market cap plus its debt, minus its cash) by its unlevered free cash flow (its free cash flow, adding back the interest payments on its debt). Like the P/E, the lower this number is, the better.

Analysts argue about which is more important -- earnings or cash flow. Who cares? A good buy ideally has low multiples on both.

Schnitzer Steel has a P/E ratio of 18.9 and an EV/FCF ratio of 1302.1 over the trailing 12 months. If we stretch and compare current valuations to the five-year averages for earnings and free cash flow, Schnitzer Steel has a P/E ratio of 16.5 and a five-year EV/FCF ratio of 30.9.

A one-year ratio under 10 for both metrics is ideal. For a five-year metric, under 20 is ideal.

Schnitzer Steel has a mixed performance in hitting the ideal targets, but let's see how it compares against some competitors and industry mates. 

Company

1-Year P/E

1-Year EV/FCF

5-Year P/E

5-Year EV/FCF

Schnitzer Steel 18.9 1,302.1 16.5 30.9
Nucor (NYSE: NUE) 68.0 68.1 13.2 12.8
Commercial Metals (NYSE: CMC) NM NM 14.1 34.6
AK Steel Holding (NYSE: AKS) 183.6 NM 32.9 26.6

Source: Capital IQ, a division of Standard & Poor's; NM = not meaningful.

Numerically, we've seen how Schnitzer Steel's valuation rates on both an absolute and relative basis. Next, let's examine ...

The consistency of past earnings and cash flow
An ideal company will be consistently strong in its earnings and cash flow generation.

In the past five years, Schnitzer Steel's net income margin has ranged from -0.4% to 6.1%. In that same time frame, unlevered free cash flow margin has ranged from -2.1% to 4.6%.

How do those figures compare with those of the company's peers? See for yourself:

Schnmarginranges


Source: Capital IQ, a division of Standard & Poor's; margin ranges are combined.

Additionally, over the last five years, Schnitzer Steel has tallied up four years of positive earnings and four years of positive free cash flow.

Next, let's figure out ...

How much growth we can expect
Analysts tend to comically overstate their five-year growth estimates. If you accept them at face value, you will overpay for stocks. But while you should definitely take the analysts' prognostications with a grain of salt, they can still provide a useful starting point when compared to similar numbers from a company's closest rivals.

Let's start by seeing what this company's done over the past five years. In that time period, Schnitzer Steel has put up past EPS growth rates of -6.9%. Meanwhile, Wall Street's analysts expect future growth rates of 13.8%.

Here's how Schnitzer Steel compares to its peers for trailing five-year growth (because of losses, the growth rates for Commercial Metals and AK Steel aren't meaningful):

Schntrailing


Source: Capital IQ, a division of Standard & Poor's; EPS growth shown.

And here's how it measures up with regard to the growth analysts expect over the next five years (there are no analyst estimates reported for Nucor and AK Steel by my data provider, but note that Yahoo! Finance shows 15% expected growth for Nucor and 10% for AK Steel):

Schn

Source: Capital IQ, a division of Standard & Poor's; estimates for EPS growth.

The bottom line
The pile of numbers we've plowed through has shown us the price multiples shares of Schnitzer Steel are trading at, the volatility of its operational performance, and what kind of growth profile it has -- both on an absolute and a relative basis.

The more consistent a company's performance has been and the more growth we can expect, the more we should be willing to pay. We've gone well beyond looking at an 18.9 P/E ratio, but this is just a start. If you find Schnitzer Steel's numbers or story compelling, don't stop. Continue your due diligence process until you're confident that the initial numbers aren't lying to you. You can start with Fool analyst Chris Barker's latest take.

Interested in reading more about any of these stocks? Add them to My Watchlist to find all of our Foolish analysis. And for more stock ideas, check out this recent article: 34 Expert Analysts Uncover Outstanding Dividend Plays.

Anand Chokkavelu doesn't own shares in any company mentioned. Nucor is a Motley Fool Stock Advisor recommendation. The Fool owns shares of Nucor. Try any of our Foolish newsletter services free for 30 days. We Fools may not all hold the same opinions, but we all believe that considering a diverse range of insights makes us better investors. The Motley Fool has a disclosure policy.