Numbers can lie -- but they're the best first step in determining whether a stock is a buy. In this series, we use some carefully chosen metrics to size up a stock's true value based on the following clues:

• The current price multiples.
• The consistency of past earnings and cash flow.
• How much growth we can expect.

Let's see what those numbers can tell us about how expensive or cheap Caribou Coffee (Nasdaq: CBOU) might be.

The current price multiples
First, we'll look at most investors' favorite metric: the P/E ratio. It divides the company's share price by its earnings per share (EPS) -- the lower, the better.

Then, we'll take things up a notch with a more advanced metric: enterprise value to unlevered free cash flow. This divides the company's enterprise value (basically, its market cap plus its debt, minus its cash) by its unlevered free cash flow (its free cash flow, adding back the interest payments on its debt). Like the P/E, the lower this number is, the better.

Analysts argue about which is more important -- earnings or cash flow. Who cares? A good buy ideally has low multiples on both.

Caribou has a P/E ratio of 10.1 and an EV/FCF ratio of 16.0 over the trailing 12 months. If we stretch and compare current valuations to the five-year averages for earnings and free cash flow, Caribou has a P/E ratio of 643.7 and a five-year EV/FCF ratio of 54.1.

A positive one-year ratio under 10 for both metrics is ideal (at least in my opinion). For a five-year metric, under 20 is ideal.

Caribou is zero for four on hitting the ideal targets, but let's see how it compares against some competitors and industry mates.

Company

1-Year P/E

1-Year EV/FCF

5-Year P/E

5-Year EV/FCF

Caribou 10.1 16.0 643.7 54.1
Starbucks 35.5 50.3 60.6 56.9
Peet's Coffee & Tea 54.8 592.2 65.8 151.8
Kraft 19.2 24.7 20.8 26.1

Source: S&P Capital IQ; NM = not meaningful due to losses.

Numerically, we've seen how Caribou's valuation rates on both an absolute and relative basis. Next, let's examine...

The consistency of past earnings and cash flow
An ideal company will be consistently strong in its earnings and cash flow generation.

In the past five years, Caribou's net income margin has ranged from -11.9% to 10.8%. In that same time frame, unlevered free cash flow margin has ranged from -1.9% to 5.9%.

How do those figures compare with those of the company's peers? See for yourself:

Source: S&P Capital IQ; margin ranges are combined.

Additionally, over the last five years, Caribou has tallied up 3 years of positive earnings and 3 years of positive free cash flow.

Next, let's figure out...

How much growth we can expect
Analysts tend to comically overstate their five-year growth estimates. If you accept them at face value, you will overpay for stocks. But while you should definitely take the analysts' prognostications with a grain of salt, they can still provide a useful starting point when compared to similar numbers from a company's closest rivals.

Let's start by seeing what this company's done over the past five years. Due to losses in that time period, Caribou's EPS growth rates aren't meaningful. However, here's how Caribou compares to its peers for trailing five-year growth:

Source: S&P Capital IQ; EPS growth shown.

And here's how it measures up with regard to the growth analysts expect over the next five years:

Source: S&P Capital IQ; estimates for EPS growth.

The bottom line
The pile of numbers we've plowed through has shown us the price multiples shares of Caribou are trading at, the volatility of its operational performance, and what kind of growth profile it has -- both on an absolute and a relative basis.

The more consistent a company's performance has been and the more growth we can expect, the more we should be willing to pay. We've gone well beyond looking at a 10.1 P/E ratio, and we see that its five-year price multiples aren't as impressive. But what we see is a steady increase in profitability on the earnings side that could be worth looking into. If its future profitability is similar or better than its present, this debt-free company may be worth looking into. That said, our CAPS community rates Caribou only two stars (out of five).

But all this is just a start. If you find Caribou's numbers or story compelling, don't stop. Continue your due diligence process until you're confident one way or the other. As a start, add it to My Watchlist to find all of our Foolish analysis.

I wrote about a stock that's flying under the radar in our brand new free report: "The Stocks Only the Smartest Investors Are Buying." I invite you to take a free copy to find out the name of the company I believe Warren Buffett would be interested in if he could still invest in small companies.

Anand Chokkavelu holds no position in any company mentioned. The Motley Fool owns shares of Starbucks. Motley Fool newsletter services have recommended buying shares of and writing covered calls on Starbucks. The Motley Fool has a disclosure policy. We Fools may not all hold the same opinions, but we all believe that considering a diverse range of insights makes us better investors. Try any of our Foolish newsletter services free for 30 days.