Here is an agency-by-agency summary of President Barack Obama's proposed budget for fiscal 2015, which begins Oct. 1, 2014. Obama sent Congress a $3.9 trillion budget Tuesday.
The top-line figures do not include spending on automatic benefit and subsidy programs that together account for 70% of government spending. Figures for many of those programs were not provided by the White House Office of Management and Budget.
The top-line figures for each agency also omit the $55.4 billion "opportunity" initiative Obama would divide equally between domestic and military programs. An agency-by-agency accounting of that proposed spending was not included in the White House budget documents.
Discretionary spending: $22.2 billion
Percentage change from 2014: 7.9 percent decrease
Highlights: The recently enacted five-year farm bill made some cutbacks to farm subsidies that the Obama administration has called for annually. But the administration would like that reform to go even further by scaling back crop insurance.
The budget proposes around a 15 percent cut in the $9 billion-a-year program, which partially subsidizes both the companies that sell crop insurance and farmer premiums. There will be little appetite for that reform in Congress, however, where funding for crop insurance has been a priority.
The bulk of the USDA budget is food stamps, which cost $80 billion last year, and money for farm subsidies and conservation programs. Together, those so-called mandatory dollars are expected to cost $123 billion on top of the $22.2 billion in discretionary spending, an 8 percent decrease from the 2014 budget year.
The budget would change the way money to fight wildfires is distributed, allowing USDA and the Interior Department to draw funds from a special disaster account when the cost of tackling fires exceeds their annual budget.
The Obama administration also proposed doubling dollars for broadband access the neediest, most rural communities and providing an extra $50 million to strengthen bee and other pollinator habitats. Many of the nation's bees, needed to pollinate crops, have been disappearing in the last decade.
The budget includes extra $295 million not included in the budget numbers that would go to agricultural research, including a new laboratory in Athens, Ga.
USDA shares food safety oversight with the Food and Drug Administration. The Agriculture Department, which oversees meat and eggs, would see about a 1 percent decrease its $1 billion in annual funding. FDA, which oversees most other foods, would get a boost of $24 million to put a new food safety law in place.
Discretionary spending: $8.8 billion
Percentage change from 2014: 6 percent increase
Highlights: The department budget proposes spending $2 billion on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to develop its next generation weather satellite systems, which helps NOAA forecast storms and issue warnings on significant changes in weather conditions.
The overall budget also would finance the National Weather Service while closing an ocean science laboratory and consolidating another.
The department oversees an unusual mix of bureaus, from the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office to the International Trade Administration and the U.S. Census Bureau.
The proposed budget includes funds for the National Institute of Standards and Technology laboratories, SelectUSA, a program to promote economic investment in the United States, and $210 million to the Economic Development Administration.
The Obama administration is proposing $753 million, an increase of $281 million, for research and testing on methods to conduct the 2020 decennial census. The proposal includes a request for $16 million to develop three statistical measures to "improve evidence-based decision-making" in counting the number of people in the U.S., figures that are politically critical in redrawing congressional districts and deciding on a state's number of representatives.
The budget also proposes $5 million for the Census Bureau to measure poverty.
The budget requests $51 million for the National Telecommunications and Information Administration, and envisions freeing up 500 MHz of spectrum through spectrum auctions. The administration says such a step will increase commercial access to wireless broadband spectrum and estimates a reduction in the deficit of nearly $20 billion over a decade.
Discretionary spending: $68.6 billion
Percentage change from 2014: 1.9 percent increase
Highlights: President Barack Obama's goal is to expand high quality early childhood programs. In particular, he's sought to create universal pre-K programs for 4-year-olds.
His budget would provide $1.3 billion to states to roll out "preschool for all" programs aligned with school systems funded by a tobacco tax hike as part of a 10-year, $75 billion plan. The Education Department would share costs with states to provide universal access to low- and moderate-income families and provide incentives to states to serve additional children. Also, it would provide $750 million in grant dollars to support states' efforts to enhance or expand preschool programs.
It would also create a new "Race to the Top Equity and Opportunity" competition funded at $300 million that would seek to encourage support for high-needs students. The plan also would increase funding toward programs in areas such as improving school safety and training for teachers using digital technology.
On making college more affordable, Obama's budget would provide billions of dollars for new programs that would reward colleges that enroll and graduate a significant number of low- and moderate-income students on time, encourage states to improve their public higher education systems and create a competition focused on improving historically black colleges and universities and other minority-serving institutions.
It would also fund $100 million for a "First in the World" competition focused on innovation in higher education and additional spending toward "pay as you earn" efforts to help needy student loan recipients pay back their debt.
Discretionary spending: $27.9 billon
Percentage change from 2014: 2.6 percent increase
Highlights: Obama again would increase spending for two priorities: clean energy and national security. The budget proposal calls for $11.7 billion for nuclear security, a 4 percent increase over the current budget. Much of that money, $8.3 billion, would go to maintain a nuclear deterrent in a joint program with the Defense Department. About $1.6 billion would go to programs that prevent the proliferation of nuclear materials and technologies that could be used by rogue states and terrorist groups. A total of $5.6 billion would go to clean up nuclear waste at Cold War sites across the nation, including one in Washington state used to build the atomic bomb.
The budget includes $2.3 billion to promote efficiency and renewable energy such as solar, wind, geothermal and hydropower to further reduce U.S. dependence on fossil fuels.
The budget proposal winds down federal funding for a long-delayed project to turn weapons-grade plutonium into fuel for nuclear reactors. After a year-long review, the budget would essentially place the South Carolina-based mixed-oxide fuel program, or MOX, on hold while officials continue to evaluate alternative ways to dispose of plutonium. The administration says it remains committed to safe disposition of weapons-grade plutonium under an agreement with Russia. The so-called MOX plant being built at South Carolina's Savannah River nuclear site has been plagued by years of delays and is billions of dollars over budget.
As he has each year in office, Obama again calls for repealing more than $4 billion per year in tax subsidies to oil, gas and other fossil fuel producers. The plan is likely to meet the same fate as previous proposals, which died without a vote in Congress.
The budget calls for spending $359 million on cutting-edge vehicle technologies, $253 million to develop new biofuels such as ethanol made from switchgrass or other materials and $200 million for a new Energy Security Trust to expand research into electric cars and biofuels to wean automobiles off gasoline. Obama also proposed the Energy Security Trust last year but was rebuffed by Congress.
Agency: Environmental Protection Agency
Discretionary spending: $7.9 billion
Percentage change from 2014: 3.7 percent decrease
Highlights: As the lead agency on cutting the pollution blamed for global warming, the EPA has some big years ahead. But the Obama administration is proposing to shave the agency's budget once again in 2015, even as it raises the amount of money available to states, which it will rely on to help achieve its environmental goals.
The budget includes a $76 million bump to grants for states and tribes, including $20 million to be used solely on efforts to support the President Barack Obama's second-term push on global warming. State agencies will play a key role in determining how exactly existing coal-fired power plants will reduce carbon pollution, a regulation EPA is expected to propose this summer.
After an explosion of ammonium nitrate at a West, Texas fertilizer plant, the administration is requesting $13 million more to upgrade computer software used by first responders to map chemical releases, to store data on chemical risk and to predict where a release to air would travel. Yet the budget cuts $581 million to loan programs used by states and tribes to upgrade drinking water infrastructure and protect water resources, even though a 2011 report to Congress found that $384.2 billion would be needed through 2030.
Some of that money will likely be restored by lawmakers keen on finding money to send back to their home states.
The EPA's budget figures exclude an additional $14 million, the agency's share of Obama's request for an extra $55 billion above a December budget agreement.
Agency: Health and Human Services
Discretionary spending: $73.7 billion
Percentage change from 2014: 7.6 percent decrease
Highlights: Obama's proposed health care budget supports the rollout of the president's health care law and lays the groundwork for next year's open enrollment season, when the administration hopes to have worked out all the bugs in the new insurance system. Fees from insurers will provide a new stream of revenue for online markets that cater to people who don't have access to health care on the job. The budget includes $25 million over two years to monitor and prevent fraud in the insurance exchanges.
Monday's budget documents provided little detail on Medicare and Medicaid, the entitlement programs that account for the vast majority of HHS spending. Those specifics will be released later. However, Obama's plan calls for overall cuts of $402 billion over ten years projected spending on the two giant health care programs. Most of that would come from Medicare. The budget also supports congressional efforts to change the way Medicare pays doctors, emphasizing improved quality. For Medicaid, the budget proposes a one-year extension of higher payments for primary care practitioners.
The Medicare cuts are expected to be heavy on recycled and updated versions of previous proposals. They include higher premiums on affluent beneficiaries for outpatient care and prescription drug coverage, and a raft of changes that would squeeze service providers.
Agency: Homeland Security
Discretionary spending: $38.2 billion
Percentage change from 2014: 2.8 percent decrease
Highlights: Obama's proposed homeland security budget would provide money to hire 2,000 new Customs and Border Protection officers to work at the country's ports of entry. The budget also proposes another 2,000 officers whose positions would be funded by user fees. Lawmakers and others have repeatedly complained to the Homeland Security Department that long waits at borders and airports hinders both business and tourism and have repeatedly asked for more border officers.
The president's budget plan also calls for $124 million to "support, expand and enhance" the E-Verify system employers can use to verify that employees are legally allowed to work in the United States. Obama has continued to push for broad immigration legislation but Republicans have been largely opposed, citing the need for border security before addressing other immigration issues. There have also been calls in recent years from some in Congress to make the use of E-verify mandatory.
The budget proposal also includes $10 million to help train local law enforcement on how to respond to mass shooting and bolster the department's "If You See Something, Say Something" program as it relates to helping prevent gun violence. President Barack Obama has unsuccessfully pushed for stronger gun control laws in the wake of mass shootings in a Colorado movie theater and a Connecticut elementary school.
Discretionary spending: $27.4 billion
Percentage change from 2014: 0.7 percent increase
Highlights: Obama's proposed Justice Department budget would provide $8.5 billion to maintain federal prisons and detention facilities, including investments in programs designed to reduce recidivism.
It also calls for $4 billion in national security investments, including a $15 million increase to fund a new FBI laboratory in Alabama that analyzes bombing attacks, such as the one at last year's Boston Marathon. The president's budget also seeks additional funds for his "Now Is The Time" initiative to reduce gun violence, a multi-prong strategy Obama announced in the aftermath of the 2012 Newtown, Conn., school shootings. The spending plan provides $13 million so the FBI can maintain improvements made to the National Instant Background Check system, and the department is seeking money to support active-shooter training for law enforcement officers.
The proposed budget also includes $681 million for financial fraud enforcement and $2.9 billion to support immigration enforcement. The president is seeking a $23 million investment for immigration courts, including for additional immigration judge teams and appeals attorneys, to deal with an increased caseload.
The spending plan calls for increased spending on civil rights to support enforcement of laws on fair housing, hate crimes, human trafficking, disability rights and voting. The budget includes requested program increases of $7.6 million for the Civil Rights Division and the Community Relations Service.
The proposed budget would also include grants to support state, local and tribal enforcement.
Discretionary spending: $17.5 billion.
Percentage change from 2014: 0.6 percent decrease.
Highlights: NASA's budget would essentially remain about the same with a tiny decrease. But if the Obama Administration gets its "opportunity" add-on budget, which is considered not likely, NASA would get an extra $885 million. That would make the space agency's budget rise by 4.5 percent.
The regular budget would decrease science spending by $179 million — 3 percent — but if the add-on spending gets approved, science spending would go back to slightly above 2014 spending levels. The regular budget would also trim exploration spending by $137 million, but the add-on would more than make up for that with $350 million in extra exploration spending.
The regular budget would increase spending by $275 million for the International Space Station and $152 million for the commercial spaceflight program that would pay private firms to take cargo_and eventually crew_to the station. The budget includes money to fund NASA efforts that would start launching people from the United States again in 2017 in private rockets. It also includes money to send astronauts on still-to-be-built NASA large rockets and crew capsules to an asteroid by 2025 and toward Mars by the mid-2030s. The agency plans 16 science and cargo launches in the upcoming budget year and to continue work on the over-budget $8.8 billion dollar James Webb space telescope that would launch in 2018.
Agency: State and U.S. Agency for International Development
Discretionary spending: $42.6 billion
Percentage change from 2014: 0.2 percent decrease
Highlights: Obama's proposed 2015 budget for the State Department and US Agency for International Development represents a slight decrease over the previous year but maintains funding for many of the administration's key priorities. It includes a $4.6 billion request to secure overseas personnel and facilities, including $2.2 billion in security construction at U.S. diplomatic missions that was recommended by a panel convened in the wake of the deadly 2012 attack on the American mission in Benghazi, Libya.
The spending plan asks Congress for $1.5 billion to support democratic transitions in the Middle East and North Africa as well as to ease the humanitarian crisis in Syria. It would set aside $400 million to support an anticipated transition in Syria. It foresees spending $5.1 billion for programs in Afghanistan, Iraq and Pakistan, a significant reduction from previous years reflecting the end of the war in Iraq and the winding down of military operations in Afghanistan. That includes $2.6 billion for operations in Afghanistan, where the administration is still reviewing the size and scope of its military presence after the end of the year; $1.5 billion for Iraq, including $250 million to support the Iraqi military; and $1 billion for Pakistan, of which $280 million will support Pakistani security forces. It would also allocate $3 billion for international peacekeeping missions.
Discretionary spending: $14 billion
Percentage change from 2014: 2.2 increase
Highlights: Obama's budget proposal would sharply boost spending on the Next Generation Air Transportation System program to revamp the nation's air traffic control system, moving from the current radar-based system to one based on GPS technology. The program would get an extra $186 million, raising the program's total budget for the federal fiscal year beginning on Oct. 1 to about $1 billion. The program is aimed at increasing the capacity and efficiency of the nation's air traffic system to accommodate growth in air travel in the coming decades. But airlines and other users of the system have complained that after 10 years of work, the program so far has produced only modest benefits. The administration says the extra funding will provide the Federal Aviation Administration — which is part of the Department of Transportation — the "flexibility to aggressively develop and deploy more time and fuel saving capabilities while also addressing serious maintenance backlogs" in existing air traffic control facilities and equipment.
Combined discretionary and mandatory budget spending for the Department of Transportation is $91 billion under the proposal. That includes $302 billion over the next four years for road, bridge, rail and transit program. Transit and passenger rail spending would jump from $12.3 billion to $22.3, mostly for grants to improve existing and new intercity train service. Obama has tried since the start of his first administration to boost train service between cities that are less than 500 miles apart, partly as a means to relieve anticipated air traffic congestion. However, his attempts to win additional funds from Congress have been largely unsuccessful since Republicans gained control of the House in the 2010 election.
Department of Defense
The Pentagon on Tuesday unveiled a proposed 2015 defense budget that shrinks the armed forces while keeping a commitment to support European allies at a time of tension over Russia's military involvement in Ukraine.
The spending plan reflects what Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel calls a choice to field a smaller but more modern force rather than a larger one less prepared for combat. Some in Congress, however, see that as an approach that weakens U.S. capabilities in a period of growing uncertainty in Europe and Asia.
The proposed $496 billion in spending -- unchanged from this year's budget total -- is part of a $3.9 trillion federal budget that President Barack Obama sent to Congress Tuesday.
Under the proposed defense plan, the Army would shrink from 490,000 active-duty soldiers to 440,000-450,000 over the coming five years -- the smallest since 1940, prior to the buildup for World War II, when the Army had 267,000 active duty troops.
The budget retains a commitment to NATO and to building a missile defense system in Europe.
In previewing the budget last week, Hagel described it as the first to fully reflect the nation's transition from 13 years of war.
"Although the future force will be smaller, it will be ready, capable and able to project power over great distances," Hagel wrote in the introduction to a strategy review released Tuesday as a companion to the budget.
The companion document, required by Congress and called the 2014 Quadrennial DefenseReview, was written prior to Russia's military moves on the Crimea region of Ukraine. It said that while the administration will continue shifting its focus toward the Asia-Pacific region, Europe will remain an important partner.
"Europe is home to our most stalwart and capable allies and partners, and the strategic access and support these countries provide is essential to ensuring that the U.S. armed forces are more agile, expeditionary, and responsive to global challenges," it said.
The U.S. combat mission in Afghanistan is scheduled to end in December. Obama has not yet decided, however, whether to authorize a non-combat mission starting in 2015 that would continue training and advising Afghan forces.
Because of the uncertainty over a U.S. military role in Afghanistan beyond this year, the Pentagon's 2015 budget includes what it called a "placeholder" sum of $79 billion for involvement in Afghanistan. The Pentagon said it would amend the budget plan once it decided on the scope of its post-2014 role in Afghanistan.
At the core of Hagel's overall plan for 2015 and beyond is the notion that after wars in Iraq and Afghanistan that proved longer and more costly than foreseen, the U.S. military will no longer be sized to conduct large and protracted ground wars. It will put more emphasis on versatile, agile forces that can project power over great distances, including in Asia.