More women are staying at home full time to raise their children, according to a new Pew Research Center report released Tuesday.
Factors cited by Pew to explain the increase include more immigrant mothers, who tend to stay home with children in greater numbers than U.S.-born moms; more women unable to find work; and ambivalence about the impact of working mothers on young children.
The share of mothers who do not work outside the home rose to 29% in 2012, the study found.
That's up from a low of 23% at the turn of the century, according to the report. At the height of the recession in 2008, Pew estimated 26% of mothers were home with children.
The 29% includes women who are married, single, disabled, enrolled in school or unable to find work.
The largest share of at-home mothers -- roughly two-thirds of 10.4 million -- had working husbands. A growing share -- 6% in 2012, up from 1% in 2000 -- said they could not find a job, according to Pew, which relied on U.S. Census and other government data.
No matter what their marital status, mothers at home are younger and less educated than working counterparts, the report said. Most married moms said they were home specifically to care for the kids, while single mothers were more likely to say they couldn't find a job, were ill or disabled or were in school.
Among all at-home mothers in 2012, 51% had at least one child 5 or younger, compared with 41% of working mothers.
The researchers said one of the most striking demographic differences between at-home mothers and working mothers is their economic well-being, with about 34% of at-home mothers living in poverty, compared with 12% of working mothers.
Relatively few married at-home mothers with working husbands qualify as "affluent," at nearly 370,000 with at least a master's degree and a median family income of over $75,000 a year in 2012. That number amounts to 5% of married at-home mothers with working husbands.
The "elite" marrieds stand out from other at-home mothers as disproportionately white or Asian. About 69% are white and 19% are Asian. Only 7% are Hispanic and 3% are black.
Mothers more likely to stay home are among demographic groups on the rise in the U.S. For example, 40% of immigrant mothers were at home with their children, compared with about a quarter of mothers born in this country.
Among at-home mothers living in poverty in 2012, 36% were immigrants, the report said.
The report points to stagnant incomes for all but the college-educated as a possible factor for less-educated workers in particular who might be weighing the cost of child care against wages and deciding it makes more economic sense to stay home.
While clearly attitudes over the decades toward working mothers have improved, "most Americans continue to believe that it's best for children to have a parent at home," said D'Vera Cohn, a senior writer at Pew who worked on the report.
Since 2008, about 70% said when questioned in an ongoing social survey that a working mother is just as capable as an at-home mother of establishing the same "warm and secure" relationship with her children. But 60% of Americans in a recent Pew survey said children are better off when a parent stays home to "focus on the family," compared with 35% who said children are "just as well off with working parents."
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