Shares of fertilizer maker Mosaic Company (MOS -0.62%) have been under considerable pressure this year, and investors were hoping to get some good news in the company's second-quarter earnings report released on Aug. 4. Mosaic didn't disappoint, reporting profits that beat analyst estimates.

Mosaic's second-quarter sales grew only about 4% to $2.5 billion, but its operating income jumped nearly 27% year over year, backed by lower production and operating costs. Furthermore, lower taxes and losses on currency fluctuations boosted Mosaic's net income by 57% to $391 million.

But those numbers only tell you half the story. The following slideshow gives you five key highlights from the earnings report that you must know, including the factors driving Mosaic's margins higher, progress on its big joint-venture project in Saudi Arabia, and what to expect from the company going ahead. There's also a bonus free report for you at the end, so don't miss it.