It's hard to believe that another year is about to come to an end. But for all that 2010 may have seemed boring in comparison to 2008's market meltdown and 2009's amazing recovery, I think this year was actually more useful in reminding investors of some valuable knowledge about their finances and the markets.
Lesson 1: Stocks aren't dead.
2009's huge rebound gave investors a wake-up call. Far from collapsing into oblivion the way some bearish stock commentators predicted during the financial crisis, stocks surged more than 65% from the market's lows by the end of 2009.
Yet more than a few folks thought that was simply the mother of all dead-cat bounces, pointing to similar market behavior following the market crash of 1929. Using that timeline, bears expected an even greater drop from these levels.
What those predictions failed to take into account, however, was just how cheap stocks were even after massive run-ups. Even now, with the market up more than 10% this year, you can find plenty of megacap names from several different industries trading at less than 13 times this year's earnings, thanks to unique challenges. For instance, software giant Microsoft has struggled to follow up on its legacy Office software success. Medicine-cabinet king Johnson & Johnson
Lesson 2: Highfliers can keep flying.
Momentum investing may seem like voodoo to some people, basing future stock movements almost entirely on where they've moved in the past. But sometimes stocks keep going up even after big jumps for perfectly good reasons; if you sell out fearing what you might think will be an inevitable reversal, then you'll miss out on even bigger gains.
There are countless examples of this phenomenon, but two of the best are Netflix
Lesson 3: Market timing doesn't work.
This was a bad year for market timing rules. When the S&P 500 fell during January, many thought it foreshadowed a down year for the market. But stocks jumped more than 10% after the end of January to rise to new post-meltdown highs.
Then, after an up-and-down few months for the market, many pointed to September's historical status as the market's worst month as evidence that stocks would set new lows for the year. Yet instead, stocks rallied sharply, catching many by surprise and bringing the S&P 500 to its current level, which remains its highest since September 2008.
Using rules of thumb sometimes works, but the times that those rules don't work can really cost you. This year's experience is just another example of when market timing can go horribly wrong.
Lesson 4: The government is in the market to stay.
There's been a huge shift in the role of the government since the financial crisis. It's true that the government has been divesting itself of its financial interests in private companies. The completion of share sales in Citigroup
But even if direct government ownership is fading, the government's influence is still clear. Congress held the markets hostage until passing the tax bill just days ago. Regulation in areas from banks and credit cards to health care will continue to move individual stocks dramatically. Government involvement in private industry may have been on the decline in the past few decades, but at least for now, it's back with a vengeance.
Keep on learning
The end of the year is a great time to reflect on the particular lessons you've learned, too. Each of us has had different experiences, yet we can all discover what we did well and what we did badly. By looking back, you'll put yourself in a better position to profit in 2011 and beyond.
Tune in every Monday and Wednesday for Dan's columns on retirement, investing, and personal finance.
Fool contributor Dan Caplinger always tries to learn his lessons well. He doesn't own shares of the companies mentioned in this article. General Motors and Microsoft are Motley Fool Inside Value selections. Netflix is a Motley Fool Stock Advisor recommendation. Johnson & Johnson is a Motley Fool Income Investor recommendation. Motley Fool Options has recommended diagonal call positions on Johnson & Johnson and Microsoft. The Fool owns shares of ExxonMobil, Johnson & Johnson, and Microsoft. Try any of our Foolish newsletter services free for 30 days. We Fools may not all hold the same opinions, but we all believe that considering a diverse range of insights makes us better investors. The Fool's disclosure policy is a ruler-wielding teacher.