I know it sounds ludicrous, but investors often overlook the people in charge of protecting their investments. The idea of gauging a company’s leadership plays second-fiddle to other categories of analysis. However, at Fool.com we believe careful study of effective leadership is one of the most important areas of evaluating long-term winning investments.

We like CEOs who actually work for shareholders like us. After all, we're the true owners of the business. When you're deciding whether to invest in a company, failing to vet its CEO is a big mistake. In fact, if you've overlooked the study of a company's leadership, then that's the one important area you should know about before finalizing your investment in the company.

After reviewing thousands of companies over dozens of years, we've found several crucial characteristics of quality management. Today, we'll size up the recent performance of Schlumberger's (NYSE: SLB) leadership.

How much skin do they have in the game?
Are Schlumberger CEO Andrew Gould's interests aligned with shareholders? Here's how the Schlumberger CEO's ownership compares to that of other companies in the industry.

CEO, Company

Shares Owned

% of Shares Outstanding

Insider Ownership Market Value (in millions)

Andrew Gould, Schlumberger

2,175,113

0.18%

$121

David Lesar, Halliburton

1,174,890

0.13%

$34

Merrill Miller, National Oilwell Varco

585,597

0.14%

$22

Source: Capital IQ, a division of Standard & Poor's. Shares are common stock equivalents only and do not include options, awards, and other forms of compensation.

Gould actually owns $121 million worth of Schlumberger, or 0.18% of shares outstanding. We Fools prefer CEOs who have higher ownership stakes in their businesses, since that better aligns their interests with shareholders'. However, while we think high insider ownership is a good sign, low insider ownership isn't necessarily a bad one. CEOs may be relatively new, or may have a low percent of shares outstanding, but a high total value of ownership. All things considered, Gould's ownership is very substantial in absolute terms.

How well are they using your money?
Return on equity (ROE) can help investors determine how adeptly management gets the job done. This metric combines how well management is expanding profitability, managing assets, and using financial leverage, all in one ratio. While return on equity isn't foolproof -- managers can manipulate it with excessive leverage, for example -- it does an excellent job of suggesting how effective managers are, and how well they can generate high returns on investors' capital.

Here's a look at Schlumberger's recent return on equity:


Schlumberger's current return on equity falls below its five-year average. The return on equity picture here can be attributed to high energy prices on as the way up to sky-high ROE, and broader economic woes and energy prices that cashed back down to earth during 2008 and 2009. To better its operating efficiency and gain additional scale, Schlumberger recently acquired Smith International to better position itself for a sectorwide economy.

How productive are their workers?
Revenue per employee provides another way to gauge a CEO's effectiveness. If this metric is declining, the company might have a bloated organizational structure, or too many extra employees toiling away at new initiatives that just aren't working out. Either possibility would hint that management isn't effectively running the organization.



Source: Capital IQ, a division of Standard & Poor's.

As you can see, Schlumberger's revenue per employee has moved above its five-year average. Rising revenue per employee can suggest that management's getting better at controlling costs, or encouraging more productivity from its workers. To better see whether Schlumberger's management is excelling in this area, let's compare the company to its peer group once again:

Company

2005

2007

2009

Last Year's Revenue Per Employee vs. 5-Year Average

Schlumberger

$238

$291

$295

4%

Halliburton (NYSE: HAL)

$95

$299

$288

28%

National Oilwell Varco (NYSE: NOV)

$245

$366

$392

16%

Source: Capital IQ, a division of Standard & Poor's. Dollar figures in thousands.

Schlumberger's revenue per employee is rising and on an absolute basis looks relatively in line with its closest peer, Halliburton.

These are just a few of the factors we look for in a company's management. If you can find leaders who continually give shareholders high returns on their capital, and align their interests with yours, you've got a better chance to enjoy market-beating returns for the long haul.

Jeremy Phillips owns shares of no companies listed above. National Oilwell Varco is a Motley Fool Stock Advisor choice. Try any of our Foolish newsletter services free for 30 days. The Motley Fool has a disclosure policy.