As investors, we need to understand how our companies truly make their money. A neat trick developed for just that purpose -- the DuPont formula -- can help us do so.

The DuPont formula can give you a better grasp on exactly where your company is producing its profit, and where it might have a competitive advantage. Named after the company where it was pioneered, the formula breaks down return on equity into three components:

Return on equity = net margin x asset turnover x leverage ratio

What makes each of these components important?

  • High net margins show that a company can get customers to pay more for its products. Luxury-goods companies provide a great example here.
  • High asset turnover indicates that a company needs to invest less of its capital, since it uses its assets more efficiently to generate sales. Service industries, for instance, often lack big capital investments.
  • Finally, the leverage ratio shows how much the company is relying on liabilities to create its profits.

Generally, the higher these numbers, the better. That said, too much debt can sink a company, so beware of companies with very high leverage ratios.

Let's see what the DuPont Formula can tell us about United Technologies (NYSE: UTX) and a few of its sector and industry peers:

Company

Return on Equity

Net Margin

Asset Turnover

Leverage Ratio

United Technologies

21.7%

8.1%

0.93

2.66

Harris (NYSE: HRS)

26.3%

10.6%

1.07

2.31

Honeywell International (NYSE: HON)

21.5%

6.5%

0.92

3.58

General Dynamics (NYSE: GD)

19.9%

8.1%

1.01

2.41

Source: Capital IQ, a division of Standard & Poor's.       

The asset turnover here is mostly in a narrow range, so differences in ROE are determined largely by leverage and margins. Even then, the returns on equity are closely bunched. Harris has the highest ROE here, with the highest net margins and asset turnover. Honeywell is not far behind, with a leverage ratio much higher than that of its competitors that compensates for its lower margins. The focus at United Technologies and General Dynamics looks very similar.

Using the DuPont formula can often give you some insight into how a company is competing against peers and what type of strategy it's using to juice return on equity. To find more successful investments, dig deeper than the earnings headlines. If you'd like to add these companies to your watchlist, or set up a new one, just click here .

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Jim Royal, Ph.D., does not own shares in any company mentioned. The Motley Fool owns shares of General Dynamics. Try any of our Foolish newsletter services free for 30 days. We Fools may not all hold the same opinions, but we all believe that considering a diverse range of insights makes us better investors. The Motley Fool has a disclosure policy.