This article was updated on Aug. 15, 2016.
Social Security is a vital program for retirees, but there are many Social Security rules that even the program's participants don't fully understand. Whether you're looking to understand your own rights to retirement income based on your work history, your eligibility for spousal Social Security benefits, or just trying to apply for Social Security for the first time, the following rules can help you learn more about the program and squeeze the maximum Social Security benefit you can get from the program in your golden years.
1. It takes 10 years of work to earn the right to Social Security retirement benefits.
Eligibility for retirement benefits requires that you earn 40 work credits under the Social Security system. You can earn up to four credits per year, and for 2016, you'll get one credit for every $1,260 in earnings.
The rules for Social Security disability benefits are different and are based on the age at which you become disabled. In general, the earlier in your career you become disabled, the fewer work credits it takes to get disability benefits. However, it never takes more than the 40 credits needed for retirement benefits.
2. Most spouses and some ex-spouses can file for spousal Social Security benefits.
In general, spouses of eligible workers are entitled to spousal Social Security benefits. If you've been married for a year or more, then you can qualify for spousal benefits. In addition, parents of minor children can claim spousal benefits on each other's work histories regardless of length of marriage.
For ex-spouses, the rules are different. Only if your marriage lasted 10 years or longer can you claim benefits on an ex-spouse's work history. In addition, if you've remarried, then you forfeit the right to claim spousal benefits.
3. Most people can apply for benefits at age 62.
The general rule for retirees is that the earliest age you can file for benefits is 62. But some people can apply earlier. Spouses can get spousal benefits regardless of age if they are caring for a child who receives benefits either because the child is under age 18, in high school and 19 or younger, or disabled. Widows and widowers can claim survivor benefits at age 60, with an option to claim as early as age 50 if the surviving spouse is disabled.
In general, you can only apply a few months in advance for benefits. The Social Security Administration won't accept applications more than four months before the date when you want benefits to start.
4. Social Security considers your best 35 years of work history.
In calculating benefits, Social Security looks at the entirety of your career, choosing the 35 highest-earning years after adjusting for inflation over the course of your work history. That means that in contrast to the way some public pensions work, earlier low-paying years can play an equally important role in determining your benefit as recent high-paying years.
For those who haven't worked a 35-year career, staying in a job longer can have a measurable impact on benefits. Even if you already have 35 years of work, staying in a high-paying job an extra year can replace an earlier low-earning year -- again depending on how inflation has behaved in the interim.
5. Social Security rules can change at a moment's notice.
Understanding Social Security is hard, but even worse is the fact that once you think you have a rule down cold, it can change. Americans found that out late last year, when new changes eliminated the file-and-suspend option and restricted application strategy for most future participants.
Because your benefits aren't written in stone, you need to stay aware of potential program changes. That way, you can weigh in with your representatives to ensure that any concerns you might have are heard.
Social Security rules can be hard to follow, but they're important to understand. By knowing these five rules, you can do a better job of managing your retirement finances.