Numbers can lie -- but they're the best first step in determining whether a stock is a buy. In this series, we use some carefully chosen metrics to size up a stock's true value based on the following clues:

  • The current price multiples
  • The consistency of past earnings and cash flow
  • How much growth we can expect

Let's see what those numbers can tell us about how cheapChina-based infant formula and dairy producer Feihe (NYSE: ADY) might be. You may remember them by their former, confusing name, American Dairy.

The current price multiples
First, we'll look at most investors' favorite metric: the P/E ratio. It divides the company's share price by its earnings per share (EPS) -- the lower, the better.

Then, we'll take things up a notch with a more advanced metric: enterprise value to unlevered free cash flow. This divides the company's enterprise value (basically, its market cap plus its debt, minus its cash) by its unlevered free cash flow (its free cash flow, adding back the interest payments on its debt). Like the P/E, the lower this number is, the better.

Analysts argue about which is more important -- earnings or cash flow. Who cares? A good buy ideally has low multiples on both.

Feihe's P/E and EV/FCF ratios over the trailing 12 months aren't meaningful, due to negative net income and free cash flow. If we stretch and compare current valuations to the five-year averages for earnings and free cash flow, Feihe has a P/E ratio of 20.7, but the EV/FCF ratio is still not meaningful.

A one-year ratio under 10 for both metrics is ideal. For a 5-year metric, under 20 is ideal.

Feihe is 0 for 4 on hitting the ideal targets, but let's see how it compares against some competitors and industry mates. 


1-Year P/E

1-Year EV/FCF

5-Year P/E

5-Year EV/FCF






Dean Foods (NYSE: DF)





Synutra International (Nasdaq: SYUT)





Abbott Laboratories (NYSE: ABT)





Source: Capital IQ, a division of Standard & Poor's; NM = not meaningful.

Numerically, we've seen how Feihe's valuation rates on both an absolute and relative basis. Next, let's examine...

The consistency of past earnings and cash flow
An ideal company will be consistently strong in its earnings and cash flow generation.

In the past five years, Feihe's net income margin has ranged from -12.4% to 17.6%. In that same time frame, unlevered free cash flow margin has ranged from -24.5% to 3.3%.

How do those figures compare with those of the company's peers? See for yourself:

Source: Capital IQ, a division of Standard & Poor's; margin ranges are combined.

Additionally, over the past five years, Feihe has tallied up four years of positive earnings and one year of positive free cash flow.

Next, let's figure out...

How much growth we can expect
Analysts tend to comically overstate their five-year growth estimates. If you accept them at face value, you will overpay for stocks. But while you should definitely take the analysts' prognostications with a grain of salt, they can still provide a useful starting point when compared to similar numbers from a company's closest rivals.

Let's start by seeing what this company's done over the past five years. Though its trailing growth rate isn't meaningful (due to negative earnings), Wall Street's analysts expect future growth rates of 20%.

Here's how Feihe compares to its peers for trailing five-year growth(for similar reasons, Syntura's growth also isn't meaningful):

Source: Capital IQ, a division of Standard & Poor's; EPS growth shown.

And here's how it measures up with regard to the growth analysts expect over the next five years:

Source: Capital IQ, a division of Standard & Poor's; estimates for EPS growth.

The bottom line
The pile of numbers we've plowed through has shown us how cheap shares of Feihe are trading, how consistent its performance has been, and what kind of growth profile it has -- both on an absolute and a relative basis.

The more consistent a company's performance has been and the more growth we can expect, the more we should be willing to pay. We've gone well beyond looking at anegative P/E ratio.

Feihe's initial numbers aren't very compelling unless you believe the future growth story. However, Dean Foods pops out for its low P/E ratios on both a one and five-year basis and its consistent margins. Trouble signs include the negative past growth and lower cash flows than earnings. Still, Dean looks to me like a company to explore further.

If you find any of these numbers compelling, don't stop. Continue your due diligence process until you're confident that the initial numbers aren't lying to you.

Interested in reading more about any of these stocks? Add them to My Watchlist to find all of our Foolish analysis on these stocks.

Anand Chokkavelu doesn't own shares in any company mentioned. We Fools may not all hold the same opinions, but we all believe that considering a diverse range of insights makes us better investors. The Motley Fool has a disclosure policy.