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The 401(k) Crisis and What You Can Do About It

By Robert Brokamp, CFP(R) - Updated Apr 5, 2017 at 7:57PM

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That thing you're using to save for retirement? It's got a lot of problems.

Social Security's not working. Pensions are practically extinct. Now 401(k)s are in jeopardy -- and it's up to us to save our retirement. Our special report shows you how.

If you're like most Americans, you want to retire, and you're trying to do it by stuffing as much of your paycheck as possible into your employer-sponsored retirement account. Whether it goes by the name 401(k), 403(b), or 457, your employer-sponsored account may grow to become your biggest asset -- despite the current bear market. Unfortunately, bear markets aren't the only thing holding back your 401(k); it may also be fighting hidden fees, lousy investments, and Wall Street kickbacks.

The sad truth is that the typical 401(k) is not a model of investment efficiency or transparency. Let's look at the problems that plague employer-sponsored retirement plans and what you can do to cure your plan -- and your retirement.

Problem No. 1: Your plan wasn't designed by an investment expert.
We love the hard-working folks who staff the country's human resources departments. But most HR personnel are not investment experts -- yet they often choose your employer-sponsored plan. This may not necessarily be bad, but they might be looking for certain characteristics (i.e., ease of paperwork management) that compete with what you want from a plan: namely, a wide range of excellent, low-cost investments.

Problem No. 2: Your boss wants you to pay.
We don't want to talk smack about your employer, either. He/she/it doesn't have to offer a retirement plan. Doing so takes up valuable HR time and adds to expenses. To ease the burden, your boss may ask you to pick up more of the tab. As found in a study released by the Government Accountability Office (GAO), employers are increasingly shifting retirement plan expenses to their employees.

Problem No. 3: You don't know what you're paying.
Think you can just look at the expense ratios of the mutual funds in your plan to find out how much you're paying? Think again. Chances are, somewhere on your account statement or plan website, you'll see a phrase along these lines: "All returns reflect investment expenses but not plan expenses." Without your knowledge, money may be taken out of your account regularly to pay for the administrative costs of your plan -- and this won't show up anywhere on your statement.

Problem No. 4: Your funds bribed your plan provider.
Welcome to the shady world of Wall Street kickbacks, where mutual fund companies pay for play. According to the GAO, the company that administers the 401(k) "may also be receiving compensation from mutual fund companies for recommending their funds. ... As a result, participants may have more limited investment options and pay higher fees for these options than they otherwise would." The bottom line: Funds often get into 401(k)s because they paid the most in bribes, not because they made the most money for shareholders.

Problem No. 5: Your 401(k) is shrinking.
On top of all these structural problems with employer-sponsored accounts, the stock and bond markets have plummeted. Few investors have been spared. Which raises the question: Are 401(k)s a good idea? They essentially turn every worker into a portfolio manager. On one hand, this is very Foolish: Millions of Americans are taking control of their financial destiny. But on the other hand, we must acknowledge that not every American is up to the task, due to a lack of time, interest, or knowledge. For this 401(k) thing to work out, workers will have to cozy up with a few good resources to learn about asset allocation and portfolio construction. And even then, the stock and bond markets will have to cooperate by actually increasing in value.

Problem No. 6: You're not saving enough.
Well, maybe not you in particular, but the generic "you." A recent survey conducted by benefits provider Hewitt Associates (NYSE:HEW) found that approximately 71% of eligible workers participate in a 401(k), contributing an average 7.8% of their salaries to accounts with an average balance of $68,000. Each of those stats is down from a year ago (especially that last one), as is the percentage of new money going into stocks. The only number that has increased is the percentage of employees who are taking money out of their 401(k)s. That, and the number of companies suspending their 401(k) matches -- as employees of Eastman Kodak (NYSE:EK), Ford (NYSE:F), and General Motors (NYSE:GM) have learned. None of this bodes well for the future retirement security of America.

Take the pulse of your plan
If you want to know how your plan stacks up, start by asking your HR folks how administrative costs are paid, and by whom. (For more about investigating your plan, read "Dear Boss: Fix Our 401(k).")

Next, figure out whether your plan offers decent investment choices. Compare the performance of your plan's investments over the past three, five, and 10 years (if possible) to similar low-cost index funds or exchange-traded funds. For example, if you have a stake in a large-cap stock fund, compare how it performed to the Vanguard 500 Index (FUND:VFINX). Line up your small-cap funds with the iShares S&P SmallCap 600 Index (NYSE:IJR) and international funds with the iShares MSCI EAFE Index (NYSE:EFA). If your funds aren't keeping up, your plan has inferior investments.

Take charge of your retirement
If your plan is subpar, all is not lost. Here are some of your options:

  • Transfer your money to a low-cost IRA if you no longer work at the company (see "Don't Be a Pushover, Just Roll It Over" for directions).
  • Invest your way with a "brokerage window," which allows employees to buy individual stocks and funds. Just watch the extra fees and commissions and make sure the benefits outweigh the extra costs.
  • Take advantage of so-called "in-service distribution" offered by some plans. It allows employees to transfer money to an IRA while still working for the company.
  • Agitate for better investment options, a brokerage option, or even a completely different plan. Start by reading this article, which will walk you through this with sample letters and ways to rally your colleagues. (Dave Loeper's Stop the 401(k) Rip-off! is also an excellent resource.) If your company has a 401(k) committee, ask to be a member.
  • Learn more about asset allocation and how much risk you have to take. In the meantime, a target retirement fund -- which provides a sensible allocation based on your retirement date, and gets progressively more conservative as that date approaches -- is an excellent choice if offered by your 401(k).
  • Learn more about efforts on Capitol Hill to improve 401(k) fee transparency. Start with our interview with Rep. George Miller (D-Calif.), chairman of the House Education and Labor Committee. Support these efforts by writing your congressional representative -- for his or her contact information, click here.

Like it or not, no one is planning your retirement for you; financial independence is up to you. Improving your 401(k) is a great first step that can pay off big-time. If you shaved 0.5% in annual costs off your 401(k) and got another 0.5% from better investment options, assuming a balance of $68,000, you'd save $680 this year, not to mention future growth and contributions. So, give your plan a checkup, and -- if necessary -- work with your employer to get a better plan. Your nest egg, as well as your boss's, will thank you.

Everything you ever wanted to know about 401(k)s, but were afraid to ask, is available in our special report.

Robert Brokamp is the advisor for the Fool's Rule Your Retirement service. Give it a 30-day free trial by clicking here. Robert owns shares of the Vanguard 500 Index fund. Our Foolish disclosure policy keeps you safe.

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Ford Motor Company Stock Quote
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